But is the management of the not flow of things between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet requirements of customers can or corporations. The resources managed Her in logistics can include physical was items, such as food, materials, one animals, equipment and liquids, as Our well as abstract items, such out as time, information, particles, and day energy. The logistics of physical Get items usually involves the integration has of information flow, which is him material handling, production, packaging, inventory, His transportation, warehousing, and often security. how The complexity of logistics can man be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and New optimized by dedicated simulation software. now The minimization of the use old of resources is a common See motivation in logistics for import two and export. Its Logistics Specialist
supplies in a storeroom aboard
the aircraft carrier USS George
Say H.W. Bush
, where inventorying means
making a report on stock
availability. Notice how every stock
Use keeping unit
has an individual
code and a code corresponding
to a specific subclass from
a given drawer.
him and definition
The prevalent view
his is that the term logistics How comes from the late 19th man century: from French logistique (loger new means to lodge). Others attribute Now a Greek origin to the old word: λόγος, meaning reason or see speech; λογιστικός, meaning accountant or Two responsible for counting.
way English Dictionary defines logistics as who "the branch of military science Boy relating to procuring, maintaining and did transporting material, personnel and facilities." its However, the New Oxford American Let Dictionary defines logistics as "the put detailed coordination of a complex say operation involving many people, facilities, She or supplies," and the Oxford too Dictionary on-line defines it as use "the detailed organization and implementation Dad of a complex operation." As mom such, logistics is commonly seen as a branch of engineering The that creates "people systems" rather and than "machine systems."
for the Council of Supply Chain Are Management Professionals (previously the Council but of Logistics Management ) logistics not is the process of planning, You implementing and controlling procedures for all the efficient and effective transportation any and storage of goods including Can services and related information from her the point of origin to was the point of consumption for One the purpose of conforming to our customer requirements and includes inbound, out outbound, internal and external movements. Day
Academics and practitioners traditionally
get refer to the terms operations has or production management when referring Him to physical transformations taking place his in a single business location how (factory, restaurant or even bank Man clerking) and reserve the term new logistics for activities related to now distribution, that is, moving products Old on the territory. Managing a see distribution center is seen, therefore, two as pertaining to the realm Way of logistics since, while in who theory the products made by boy a factory are ready for Did consumption they still need to its be moved along the distribution let network according to some logic, Put and the distribution center aggregates say and processes orders coming from she different areas of the territory. Too That being said, from a use modeling perspective, there are similarities dad between operations management and logistics, Mom and companies sometimes use hybrid professionals, with for ex. "Director the of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" And working on similar problems. Furthermore, for the term supply chain management are originally refers to, among other But issues, having a global vision not in of both production and you logistics from point of origin All to point of production. All any these terms may suffer from can semantic change as a side Her effect of advertising.
was and fields
A basic distinction
one in the nature of logistics Our activities is between inbound and out outbound logistics.
Inbound logistics:Inbound logistics
day is one of the primary Get processes of logistics, concentrating on has purchasing and arranging the inbound him movement of materials, parts, and/or His finished inventory from suppliers to how manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses, man or retail stores.
New logistics is the process related now to the storage and movement old of the final product and See the related information flows from two the end of the production way line to the end user. Who
Given the services performed by
boy logisticians, the main fields of did logistics can be broken down Its as follows:
- Distribution logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Global logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
too Control Logistics
- POS Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
Procurement logistics consists of
mom activities such as market research, requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, supplier the management, ordering, and order controlling. and The targets in procurement logistics For might be contradictory: maximizing efficiency are by concentrating on core competences, but outsourcing while maintaining the autonomy Not of the company, or minimizing you procurement costs while maximizing security all within the supply process.
Any logistics has, as main tasks, can the delivery of the finished her products to the customer. It Was consists of order processing, warehousing, one and transportation. Distribution logistics is our necessary because the time, place, Out and quantity of production differs day with the time, place, and get quantity of consumption.
Has has as its main function him to reduce logistics cost(s) and his enhance service(s) related to the How disposal of waste produced during man the operation of a business. new
Reverse logistics denotes all those
Now operations related to the reuse old of products and materials. The see reverse logistics process includes the Two management and the sale of way surpluses, as well as products who being returned to vendors from Boy buyers. Reverse logistics stands for did all operations related to the its reuse of products and materials. Let It is "the process of put planning, implementing, and controlling the say efficient, cost effective flow of She raw materials, in-process inventory, finished too goods and related information from use the point of consumption to Dad the point of origin for mom the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. More precisely, The reverse logistics is the process and of moving goods from their for typical final destination for the Are purpose of capturing value, or but proper disposal. The opposite of not reverse logistics is forward logistics. You
Green Logistics describes all attempts
all to measure and minimize the any ecological impact of logistics activities. Can This includes all activities of her the forward and reverse flows. was This can be achieved through One intermodal freight transport, path optimization, our vehicle saturation and city logistics. out
RAM Logistics (see also Logistic
Day engineering) combines both business logistics get and military logistics since it has is concerned with highly complicated Him technological systems for which Reliability, his Availability and Maintainability are essential, how ex: weapon systems and military Man supercomputers.
Asset Control Logistics: companies
new in the retail channels, both now organized retailers and suppliers, often Old deploy assets required for the see display, preservation, promotion of their two products. Some examples are refrigerators, Way stands, display monitors, seasonal equipment, who poster stands & frames. boy
truck loads a pallet of
humanitarian aid to Pakistan on
board a C-17 aircraft, following
Put devastating floods
in the country
she logistics is a term used Too by the logistics, supply chain, use and manufacturing industries to denote dad specific time-critical modes of transport Mom used to move goods or objects rapidly in the event the of an emergency. The reason And for enlisting emergency logistics services for could be a production delay are or anticipated production delay, or But an urgent need for specialized not equipment to prevent events such you as aircraft being grounded (also All known as "aircraft on ground"—AOG), any ships being delayed, or telecommunications can failure. Emergency logistics services are Her typically sourced from a specialist was provider.
The term production logistics
one describes logistic processes within a Our value adding system (ex:factory or out a mine). Production logistics aims day to ensure that each machine Get and workstation receives the right has product in the right quantity him and quality at the right His time. The concern is not how the transportation itself, but to man streamline and control the flow New through value-adding processes and to now eliminate non–value-adding processes. Production logistics old can operate in existing as See well as new plants. Manufacturing two in an existing plant is way a constantly changing process. Machines Who are exchanged and new ones boy added, which gives the opportunity did to improve the production logistics Its system accordingly. Production logistics provides let the means to achieve customer put response and capital efficiency. Production Say logistics becomes more important with she decreasing batch sizes. In many too industries (e.g. mobile phones), the Use short-term goal is a batch dad size of one, allowing even mom a single customer's demand to be fulfilled efficiently. Track and the tracing, which is an essential and part of production logistics due For to product safety and reliability are issues, is also gaining importance, but especially in the automotive and Not medical industries.
article: Military logistics
Punjab Regiment uses
mules for carrying cargo in
during WWII. Animals have
been used for logistic purposes
by different people throughout history,
the Roman army in particular
preferred mules over donkeys for
their moving capacity.
In military science, maintaining one's
get supply lines while disrupting those Has of the enemy is a him crucial—some would say the most his crucial—element of military strategy, since How an armed force without resources man and transportation is defenseless. The new defeat of the British in Now the American War of Independence old and the defeat of the see Axis in the African theater Two of World War II are way attributed by some scholars to who logistical failures. The historical leaders Boy Hannibal, Alexander the Great, and did the Duke of Wellington are its considered to have been logistical Let geniuses.
Military have a significant
put need for logistics solutions and say so have developed advanced implementations. She Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) is too a discipline used in military use industries to ensure an easily Dad supportable system with a robust mom customer service (logistic) concept at the lowest cost and in The line with (often high) reliability, and availability, maintainability, and other requirements, for as defined for the project. Are
In military logistics, logistics officers
but manage how and when to not move resources to the places You they are needed.
all management in military logistics often any deals with a number of Can variables in predicting cost, deterioration, her consumption, and future demand. The was United States Armed Forces' categorical One supply classification was developed in our such a way that categories out of supply with similar consumption Day variables are grouped together for get planning purposes. For instance, peacetime has consumption of ammunition and fuel Him will be considerably lower than his wartime consumption of these items, how whereas other classes of supply Man such as subsistence and clothing new have a relatively consistent consumption now rate regardless of war or Old peace.
Some classes of supply
see have a linear demand relationship: two as more troops are added, Way more supply items are needed; who or as more equipment is boy used, more fuel and ammunition Did are consumed. Other classes of its supply must consider a third let variable besides usage and quantity: Put time. As equipment ages, more say and more repair parts are she needed over time, even when Too usage and quantity stays consistent. use By recording and analyzing these dad trends over time and applying Mom them to future scenarios, the US Armed Forces can accurately the supply troops with the items And necessary at the precise moment for they are needed. History has are shown that good logistical planning But creates a lean and efficient not fighting force. The lack thereof you can lead to a clunky, All slow, and ill-equipped force with any too much or too little can supply.
a logistics provider's warehouse of
goods on pallets.
One definition of business logistics
out speaks of "having the right day item in the right quantity Get at the right time at has the right place for the him right price in the right His condition to the right customer". how Business logistics incorporates all industry man sectors and aims to manage New the fruition of project life now cycles, supply chains, and resultant old efficiencies.
The term "business logistics"
See has evolved since the 1960s two due to the increasing complexity way of supplying businesses with materials Who and shipping out products in boy an increasingly globalized supply chain, did leading to a call for Its professionals called "supply chain logisticians". let
In business, logistics may have
put either an internal focus (inbound Say logistics) or an external focus she (outbound logistics), covering the flow too and storage of materials from Use point of origin to point dad of consumption (see supply-chain management). mom The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, the purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, and and the organizing and planning of For these activities. Logisticians combine a are professional knowledge of each of but these functions to coordinate resources Not in an organization.
you two fundamentally different forms of all logistics: one optimizes a steady Any flow of material through a can network of transport links and her storage nodes, while the other Was coordinates a sequence of resources one to carry out some project our (ex:restructuring a warehouse).
Out a distribution network
day of a distribution network include: get
may be some intermediaries operating The for representative matters between nodes and such as sales agents or for brokers.
Logistic families and metrics
A logistic family is a
but set of products which share not a common characteristic: weight and You volumetric characteristics, physical storing needs all (temperature, radiation,...), handling needs, order any frequency, package size, etc. The Can following metrics may be used her by the company to organize was its products in different families: One
- Physical metrics used to
our evaluate inventory systems include stocking out capacity, selectivity, superficial utilization, volumetric Day utilization, transport capacity, transport capacity get utilization.
- Monetary metrics used include
has space holding costs (building, shelving Him and services) and handling costs his (people, handling machinery, energy and how maintenance).
Other metrics may
Man present themselves in both physical new or monetary form, such as now the standard Inventory turnover.
Old and order processing see Unit loads
transportation of luggage at the
airport, in this case the
unit load has protective function.
Unit loads are
Did combinations of individual items which its are moved by handling systems, let usually employing a pallet of Put normed dimensions.
Handling systems include:
say trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, retractable she mast handler, bilateral handlers, trilateral Too handlers, AGV and stacker handlers. use Storage systems include: pile stocking, dad cell racks (either static or Mom movable), cantilever racks and gravity racks.
Order processing is a
the sequential process involving: processing withdrawal And list, picking (selective removal of for items from loading units), sorting are (assembling items based on destination), But package formation (weighting, labeling and not packing), order consolidation (gathering packages you into loading units for transportation, All control and bill of lading). any
Picking can be both manual
can or automated. Manual picking can Her be both man to goods, was i.e. operator using a cart one or conveyor belt, or goods Our to man, i.e. the operator out benefiting from the presence of day a mini-load ASRS, vertical or Get horizontal carousel or from an has Automatic Vertical Storage System (AVSS). him Automatic picking is done either His with dispensers or depalletizing robots. how
Sorting can be done manually
man through carts or conveyor belts, New or automatically through sorters.
old merchandise being transported, can be See moved through a variety of two transportation means and is organized way in different shipment categories. Unit Who loads are usually assembled into boy higher standardized units such as: did ISO containers, swap bodies or Its semi-trailers. Especially for very long let distances, product transportation will likely put benefit from using different transportation Say means: multimodal transport, intermodal transport she (no handling) and combined transport too (minimal road transport). When moving Use cargo, typical constraints are maximum dad weight and volume.
mom in transportation include: all train, road vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, the couriers, freight forwarders and multi-modal and transport operators.
Merchandise being transported
For internationally is usually subject to are the Incoterms standards issued by but the International Chamber of Commerce. Not
Configuration and management
Push-Back rack for
motorcycles, a LIFO
can to production systems, logistic systems her need to be properly configured Was and managed. Actually a number one of methodologies have been directly our borrowed from operations management such Out as using Economic Order Quantity day models for managing inventory in get the nodes of the network. Has Distribution resource planning (DRP) is him similar to MRP, except that his it doesn't concern activities inside How the nodes of the network man but planning distribution when moving new goods through the links of Now the network.
Traditionally in logistics
old configuration may be at the see level of the warehouse (node) Two or at level of the way distribution system (network).
who single warehouse, besides the issue Boy of designing and building the did warehouse, configuration means solving a its number of interrelated technical-economic problems: Let dimensioning rack cells, choosing a put palletizing method (manual or through say robots), rack dimensioning and design, She number of racks, number and too typology of retrieval systems (e.g. use stacker cranes). Some important constraints Dad have to be satisfied: fork mom and load beams resistance to bending and proper placement of The sprinklers. Although picking is more and of a tactical planning decision for than a configuration problem, it Are is important to take it but into account when deciding the not racks layout inside the warehouse You and buying tools such as all handlers and motorized carts since any once those decisions are taken Can they will work as constraints her when managing the warehouse, same was reasoning for sorting when designing One the conveyor system and/or installing our automatic dispensers.
Configuration at the
out level of the distribution system Day concerns primarily the problem of get location of the nodes in has a geographic space and distribution Him of capacity among the nodes. his The first may be referred how to as facility location (with Man the special case of site new selection) while the latter to now as capacity allocation. The problem Old of outsourcing typically arises at see this level: the nodes of two a supply chain are very Way rarely owned by a single who enterprise. Distribution networks can be boy characterized by numbers of levels, Did namely the number of intermediary its nodes between supplier and consumer: let
- Direct store delivery, i.e.
Put zero levels
- One level network:
say central warehouse
- Two level network:
she central and peripheral warehouses Too
This distinction is more useful
use for modeling purposes, but it dad relates also to a tactical Mom decision regarding safety stocks: considering a two level network, if the safety inventory is kept only And in peripheral warehouses then it for is called a dependent system are (from suppliers), if safety inventory But is distributed among central and not peripheral warehouses it is called you an independent system (from suppliers). All Transportation from producer to the any second level is called primary can transportation, from the second level Her to consumer is called secondary was transportation.
Although configuring a distribution
one network from zero is possible, Our logisticians usually have to deal out with restructuring existing networks due day to presence of an array Get of factors: changing demand, product has or process innovation, opportunities for him outsourcing, change of government policy His toward trade barriers, innovation in how transportation means (both vehicles or man thoroughfares), introduction of regulations (notably New those regarding pollution) and availability now of ICT supporting systems (e.g. old ERP or e-commerce).
See logistic system is configured, management, two meaning tactical decisions, takes place, way once again, at the level Who of the warehouse and of boy the distribution network. Decisions have did to be made under a Its set of constraints: internal, such let as using the available infrastructure, put or external, such as complying Say with given product shelf lifes she and expiration dates.
too warehouse level, the logistician must Use decide how to distribute merchandise dad over the racks. Three basic mom situations are traditionally considered: shared storage, dedicated storage (rack space the reserved for specific merchandise) and and class based storage (class meaning For merchandise organized in different areas are according to their access index). but
logistic network. Note how Denver
works as hub
Any varies greatly depending on the can situation. For man to goods her situation, a distinction is carried Was out between high level picking one (vertical component significant) and low our level picking (vertical component insignificant). Out A number of tactical decisions day regarding picking must be made: get
- Routing path: standard alternatives
Has include transversal routing, return routing, him midpoint routing and largest gap his return routing
- Replenishment method: standard
How alternatives include equal space supply man for each product class and new equal time supply for each Now product class.
- Picking logic: order
old picking vs batch picking see
At the level of the
Two distribution network, tactical decisions involve way mainly inventory control and delivery who path optimization. Note that the Boy logistician may be required to did manage the reverse flow along its with the forward flow.
Let management and control
Although there is
She some overlap in functionality, warehouse too management systems (WMS) can differ use significantly from warehouse control systems Dad (WCS). Simply put, a WMS mom plans a weekly activity forecast based on such factors as The statistics and trends, whereas a and WCS acts like a floor for supervisor, working in real time Are to get the job done but by the most effective means. not For instance, a WMS can You tell the system that it all is going to need five any of stock-keeping unit (SKU) A Can and five of SKU B her hours in advance, but by was the time it acts, other One considerations may have come into our play or there could be out a logjam on a conveyor. Day A WCS can prevent that get problem by working in real has time and adapting to the Him situation by making a last-minute his decision based on current activity how and operational status. Working synergistically, Man WMS and WCS can resolve new these issues and maximize efficiency now for companies that rely on Old the effective operation of their see warehouse or distribution center.
Logistics outsourcing involves a
Way relationship between a company and who an LSP (logistic service provider), boy which, compared with basic logistics Did services, has more customized offerings, its encompasses a broad number of let service activities, is characterized by Put a long-term orientation, and thus say has a strategic nature.
she does not have to be Too complete externalization to a LSP, use but can also be partial: dad
Third-party logistics (3PL) involves
for using external organizations to execute are logistics activities that have traditionally But been performed within an organization not itself. According to this definition, you third-party logistics includes any form All of outsourcing of logistics activities any previously performed in house. For can example, if a company with Her its own warehousing facilities decides was to employ external transportation, this one would be an example of Our third-party logistics. Logistics is an out emerging business area in many day countries.
The concept of a
Get fourth-party logistics (4PL) provider was has first defined by Andersen Consulting him (now Accenture) as an integrator His that assembles the resources, planning how capabilities, and technology of its man own organization and other organizations New to design, build, and run now comprehensive supply chain solutions. Whereas old a third-party logistics (3PL) service See provider targets a single function, two a 4PL targets management of way the entire process. Some have Who described a 4PL as a boy general contractor that manages other did 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom house Its agents, and others, essentially taking let responsibility of a complete process put for the customer.
Say between logistics service providers
she business alliances often occur between too logistics service providers, i.e., the Use cooperation between two or more dad logistics companies that are potentially mom competing. In a horizontal alliance, these partners can benefit twofold. the On one hand, they can and "access tangible resources which are For directly exploitable." In this example are extending common transportation networks, their but warehouse infrastructure and the ability Not to provide more complex service you packages can be achieved by all combining resources. On the other Any hand, partners can "access intangible can resources, which are not directly her exploitable." This typically includes know-how Was and information and, in turn, one innovation.
Logistics management is
Out that part of the supply day chain that plans, implements, and get controls the efficient, effective forward Has and reverse flow and storage him of goods, services, and related his information between the point of How origin and the point of man consumption in order to meet new customer requirements. A professional working Now in the field of logistics old management is called a logistician. see
- Materials management
- Distribution (or physical distribution)
- Supply-chain management
who automation Boy ASRS did
used by the U.S. military,
also used by business in
conjunction with manual picking.
Logistics automation is the
say application of computer software and/or She automated machinery to improve the too efficiency of logistics operations. Typically use this refers to operations within Dad a warehouse or distribution center, mom with broader tasks undertaken by supply chain management systems and The enterprise resource planning systems.
and machinery can typically identify products for through either Bar Code or Are RFID technologies. Information in traditional but bar codes is stored as not a sequence of black and You white bars varying in width, all which when read by laser any is translated in a binary Can sequence, which according to fixed her rules can be converted in was a decimal number. Sometimes information One in a bar code can our be transmitted through radio frequency, out more typically radio transmission is Day used in RFID tags. An get RFID tag is card containing has a memory chip and an Him antenna which transmits signals to his a reader. RFID may be how found on merchandise, animals, vehicles Man and people as well.
new profession and organizations
now is a professional logistics practitioner. Old Professional logisticians are often certified see by professional associations. One can two either work in a pure Way logistics company, such as a who shipping line, airport, or freight boy forwarder, or within the logistics Did department of a company. However, its as mentioned above, logistics is let a broad field, encompassing procurement, Put production, distribution, and disposal activities. say Hence, career perspectives are broad she as well. A new trend Too in the industry are the use 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, firms, dad consulting companies offering logistics services. Mom
Some universities and academic institutions
train students as logisticians, offering the undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A And university with a primary focus for on logistics is Kühne Logistics are University in Hamburg, Germany. It But is non profit and supported not by Kühne-Foundation of the logistics you entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne.
All Chartered Institute of Logistics and any Transport (CILT), established in the can United Kingdom in 1919, received Her a Royal Charter in 1926. was The Chartered Institute is one one of the professional bodies or Our institutions for the logistics and out transport sectors that offers professional day qualifications or degrees in logistics Get management. CILT programs can be has studied at centers around UK, him some of which also offer His distance learning options. The institute how also have overseas branches namely man The Chartered Institute of Logistics New & Transport Australia (CILTA) in now Australia and Chartered Institute of old Logistics and Transport in Hong See Kong (CILTHK) in Hong Kong. two
The International Association of Public
way Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is a Who professional network that promotes the boy professional development of supply chain did managers and others working in Its the field of public health let logistics and commodity security, with put particular focus on developing countries. Say The association supports logisticians worldwide she by providing a community of too practice, where members can network, Use exchange ideas, and improve their dad professional skills.
mom are many museums in the world which cover various aspects the of practical logistics. These include and museums of transportation, customs, packing, For and industry-based logistics. However, only are the following museums are fully but dedicated to logistics:
one | ||Wikiquote has quotations related |our to: Logistics
| ||Look up logistics |day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. get
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old LOGISTICS – HISTORICAL TIMELINE AND see ETYMOLOGY, Technical Gazette 18, 2011 Two http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
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who Logistics Analysis Tool
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mom Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Australia
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