But is the management of the not flow of things between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet requirements of customers can or corporations. The resources managed Her in logistics can include physical was items, such as food, materials, one animals, equipment and liquids, as Our well as abstract items, such out as time and information. The day logistics of physical items usually Get involves the integration of information has flow, material handling, production, packaging, him inventory, transportation, warehousing, and often His security. The complexity of logistics how can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, man and optimized by dedicated simulation New software. The minimization of the now use of resources is a old common motivation in all logistics See fields. boy did Logistics Specialist
in a storeroom aboard the
aircraft carrier USS George H.W.
, where inventorying means making
a report on stock availability.
Notice how every stock keeping
has an individual code
and a code corresponding to
a specific subclass from a
The prevalent view is
him that the term logistics comes his from the late 19th century: How from French logistique (loger means man to lodge). Others attribute a new Greek origin to the word: Now λόγος, meaning reason or speech; old λογιστικός, meaning accountant or responsible see for counting.
The Oxford English
Two Dictionary defines logistics as "the way branch of military science relating who to procuring, maintaining and transporting Boy material, personnel and facilities." However, did the New Oxford American Dictionary its defines logistics as "the detailed Let coordination of a complex operation put involving many people, facilities, or say supplies," and the Oxford Dictionary She on-line defines it as "the too detailed organization and implementation of use a complex operation." As such, Dad logistics is commonly seen as mom a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than The "machine systems."
According to the
and Council of Supply Chain Management for Professionals (previously the Council of Are Logistics Management ) logistics is but the process of planning, implementing not and controlling procedures for the You efficient and effective transportation and all storage of goods including services any and related information from the Can point of origin to the her point of consumption for the was purpose of conforming to customer One requirements and includes inbound, outbound, our internal and external movements. out
Academics and practitioners traditionally refer
Day to the terms operations or get production management when referring to has physical transformations taking place in Him a single business location (factory, his restaurant or even bank clerking) how and reserve the term logistics Man for activities related to distribution, new that is, moving products on now the territory. Managing a distribution Old center is seen, therefore, as see pertaining to the realm of two logistics since, while in theory Way the products made by a who factory are ready for consumption boy they still need to be Did moved along the distribution network its according to some logic, and let the distribution center aggregates and Put processes orders coming from different say areas of the territory. That she being said, from a modeling Too perspective, there are similarities between use operations management and logistics, and dad companies sometimes use hybrid professionals, Mom with for ex. "Director of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" working the on similar problems. Furthermore, the And term supply chain management originally for refers to, among other issues, are having a global vision in But of both production and logistics not from point of origin to you point of production. All these All terms may suffer from semantic any change as a side effect can of advertising.
Logistics activities and
A basic distinction in
was the nature of logistics activities one is between inbound and outbound Our logistics.
Inbound logistics is one
out of the primary processes of day logistics, concentrating on purchasing and Get arranging the inbound movement of has materials, parts, and/or finished inventory him from suppliers to manufacturing or His assembly plants, warehouses, or retail how stores.
Outbound logistics is the
man process related to the storage New and movement of the final now product and the related information old flows from the end of See the production line to the two end user.
Given the services
way performed by logisticians, the main Who fields of logistics can be boy broken down as follows: did
- Procurement logistics
- Distribution logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Green logistics
- Global logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- Asset Control Logistics
she Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
Use consists of activities such as dad market research, requirements planning, make-or-buy mom decisions, supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. The targets in the procurement logistics might be contradictory: and maximizing efficiency by concentrating on For core competences, outsourcing while maintaining are the autonomy of the company, but or minimizing procurement costs while Not maximizing security within the supply you process.
Distribution logistics has, as
all main tasks, the delivery of Any the finished products to the can customer. It consists of order her processing, warehousing, and transportation. Distribution Was logistics is necessary because the one time, place, and quantity of our production differs with the time, Out place, and quantity of consumption. day
Disposal logistics has as its
get main function to reduce logistics Has cost(s) and enhance service(s) related him to the disposal of waste his produced during the operation of How a business.
Reverse logistics denotes
man all those operations related to new the reuse of products and Now materials. The reverse logistics process old includes the management and the see sale of surpluses, as well Two as products being returned to way vendors from buyers. Reverse logistics who stands for all operations related Boy to the reuse of products did and materials. It is "the its process of planning, implementing, and Let controlling the efficient, cost effective put flow of raw materials, in-process say inventory, finished goods and related She information from the point of too consumption to the point of use origin for the purpose of Dad recapturing value or proper disposal. mom More precisely, reverse logistics is the process of moving goods The from their typical final destination and for the purpose of capturing for value, or proper disposal. The Are opposite of reverse logistics is but forward logistics.
Green Logistics describes
not all attempts to measure and You minimize the ecological impact of all logistics activities. This includes all any activities of the forward and Can reverse flows. This can be her achieved through intermodal freight transport, was path optimization, vehicle saturation and One city logistics.
RAM Logistics (see
our also Logistic engineering) combines both out business logistics and military logistics Day since it is concerned with get highly complicated technological systems for has which Reliability, Availability and Maintainability Him are essential, ex: weapon systems his and military supercomputers.
how Logistics: companies in the retail Man channels, both organized retailers and new suppliers, often deploy assets required now for the display, preservation, promotion Old of their products. Some examples see are refrigerators, stands, display monitors, two seasonal equipment, poster stands & Way frames. who
A forklift truck loads a
pallet of humanitarian aid to
Pakistan on board a C-17
aircraft, following devastating floods
the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is a
say term used by the logistics, she supply chain, and manufacturing industries Too to denote specific time-critical modes use of transport used to move dad goods or objects rapidly in Mom the event of an emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency the logistics services could be a And production delay or anticipated production for delay, or an urgent need are for specialized equipment to prevent But events such as aircraft being not grounded (also known as "aircraft you on ground"—AOG), ships being delayed, All or telecommunications failure. Emergency logistics any services are typically sourced from can a specialist provider.
Her production logistics describes logistic processes was within a value adding system one (ex: factory or a mine). Our Production logistics aims to ensure out that each machine and workstation day receives the right product in Get the right quantity and quality has at the right time. The him concern is not the transportation His itself, but to streamline and how control the flow through value-adding man processes and to eliminate non–value-adding New processes. Production logistics can operate now in existing as well as old new plants. Manufacturing in an See existing plant is a constantly two changing process. Machines are exchanged way and new ones added, which Who gives the opportunity to improve boy the production logistics system accordingly. did Production logistics provides the means Its to achieve customer response and let capital efficiency. Production logistics becomes put more important with decreasing batch Say sizes. In many industries (e.g. she mobile phones), the short-term goal too is a batch size of Use one, allowing even a single dad customer's demand to be fulfilled mom efficiently. Track and tracing, which is an essential part of the production logistics due to product and safety and reliability issues, is For also gaining importance, especially in are the automotive and medical industries. but
Punjab Regiment uses mules for
carrying cargo in Burma
WWII. Animals have been used
for logistic purposes by different
people throughout history, the Roman
army in particular preferred mules
over donkeys for their moving
Out science, maintaining one's supply lines day while disrupting those of the get enemy is a crucial—some would Has say the most crucial—element of him military strategy, since an armed his force without resources and transportation How is defenseless. The defeat of man the British in the American new War of Independence and the Now defeat of the Axis in old the African theater of World see War II are attributed by Two some scholars to logistical failures. way The historical leaders Hannibal, Alexander who the Great, and the Duke Boy of Wellington are considered to did have been logistical geniuses.
its have a significant need for Let logistics solutions and so have put developed advanced implementations. Integrated Logistics say Support (ILS) is a discipline She used in military industries to too ensure an easily supportable system use with a robust customer service Dad (logistic) concept at the lowest mom cost and in line with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, The and other requirements, as defined and for the project.
for logistics, logistics officers manage how Are and when to move resources but to the places they are not needed.
Supply chain management in
You military logistics often deals with all a number of variables in any predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, and Can future demand. The United States her Armed Forces' categorical supply classification was was developed in such a One way that categories of supply our with similar consumption variables are out grouped together for planning purposes. Day For instance, peacetime consumption of get ammunition and fuel will be has considerably lower than wartime consumption Him of these items, whereas other his classes of supply such as how subsistence and clothing have a Man relatively consistent consumption rate regardless new of war or peace.
now classes of supply have a Old linear demand relationship: as more see troops are added, more supply two items are needed; or as Way more equipment is used, more who fuel and ammunition are consumed. boy Other classes of supply must Did consider a third variable besides its usage and quantity: time. As let equipment ages, more and more Put repair parts are needed over say time, even when usage and she quantity stays consistent. By recording Too and analyzing these trends over use time and applying them to dad future scenarios, the US Armed Mom Forces can accurately supply troops with the items necessary at the the precise moment they are And needed. History has shown that for good logistical planning creates a are lean and efficient fighting force. But The lack thereof can lead not to a clunky, slow, and you ill-equipped force with too much All or too little supply.
any logistics can
stacking a logistics
provider's warehouse of goods on
one of business logistics speaks of Our "having the right item in out the right quantity at the day right time at the right Get place for the right price has in the right condition to him the right customer". Business logistics His incorporates all industry sectors and how aims to manage the fruition man of project life cycles, supply New chains, and resultant efficiencies.
now term "business logistics" has evolved old since the 1960s due to See the increasing complexity of supplying two businesses with materials and shipping way out products in an increasingly Who globalized supply chain, leading to boy a call for professionals called did "supply chain logisticians".
Its logistics may have either an let internal focus (inbound logistics) or put an external focus (outbound logistics), Say covering the flow and storage she of materials from point of too origin to point of consumption Use (see supply-chain management). The main dad functions of a qualified logistician mom include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, and the organizing the and planning of these activities. and Logisticians combine a professional knowledge For of each of these functions are to coordinate resources in an but organization.
There are two fundamentally
Not different forms of logistics: one you optimizes a steady flow of all material through a network of Any transport links and storage nodes, can while the other coordinates a her sequence of resources to carry Was out some project (ex:restructuring a one warehouse).
Nodes of a distribution
The nodes of a
Out distribution network include:
There may be
mom some intermediaries operating for representative matters between nodes such as The sales agents or brokers.
and families and metrics
for family is a set of Are products which share a common but characteristic: weight and volumetric characteristics, not physical storing needs (temperature, radiation,...), You handling needs, order frequency, package all size, etc. The following metrics any may be used by the Can company to organize its products her in different families:
was metrics used to evaluate inventory One systems include stocking capacity, selectivity, our superficial utilization, volumetric utilization, transport out capacity, transport capacity utilization.
Day metrics used include space holding get costs (building, shelving and services) has and handling costs (people, handling Him machinery, energy and maintenance). his
Other metrics may present themselves
how in both physical or monetary Man form, such as the standard new Inventory turnover.
Handling and order
now processing Old Unit loads
for transportation of
luggage at the airport, in
this case the unit load
has protective function.
Unit loads are combinations of
boy individual items which are moved Did by handling systems, usually employing its a pallet of normed dimensions. let
Handling systems include: trans-pallet handlers,
Put counterweight handler, retractable mast handler, say bilateral handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV she and stacker handlers. Storage systems Too include: pile stocking, cell racks use (either static or movable), cantilever dad racks and gravity racks.
Mom processing is a sequential process involving: processing withdrawal list, picking the (selective removal of items from And loading units), sorting (assembling items for based on destination), package formation are (weighting, labeling and packing), order But consolidation (gathering packages into loading not units for transportation, control and you bill of lading).
All be both manual or automated. any Manual picking can be both can man to goods, i.e. operator Her using a cart or conveyor was belt, or goods to man, one i.e. the operator benefiting from Our the presence of a mini-load out ASRS, vertical or horizontal carousel day or from an Automatic Vertical Get Storage System (AVSS). Automatic picking has is done either with dispensers him or depalletizing robots.
His be done manually through carts how or conveyor belts, or automatically man through sorters.
Cargo, i.e. merchandise being
now transported, can be moved through old a variety of transportation means See and is organized in different two shipment categories. Unit loads are way usually assembled into higher standardized Who units such as: ISO containers, boy swap bodies or semi-trailers. Especially did for very long distances, product Its transportation will likely benefit from let using different transportation means: multimodal put transport, intermodal transport (no handling) Say and combined transport (minimal road she transport). When moving cargo, typical too constraints are maximum weight and Use volume.
Operators involved in transportation
dad include: all train, road vehicles, mom boats, airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders and multi-modal transport operators. the
Merchandise being transported internationally is
and usually subject to the Incoterms For standards issued by the International are Chamber of Commerce.
but management Not
Push-Back rack for motorcycles, a
rack system for storage.
Similarly to production
Any systems, logistic systems need to can be properly configured and managed. her Actually a number of methodologies Was have been directly borrowed from one operations management such as using our Economic Order Quantity models for Out managing inventory in the nodes day of the network. Distribution resource get planning (DRP) is similar to Has MRP, except that it doesn't him concern activities inside the nodes his of the network but planning How distribution when moving goods through man the links of the network. new
Traditionally in logistics configuration may
Now be at the level of old the warehouse (node) or at see level of the distribution system Two (network).
Regarding a single warehouse,
way besides the issue of designing who and building the warehouse, configuration Boy means solving a number of did interrelated technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack its cells, choosing a palletizing method Let (manual or through robots), rack put dimensioning and design, number of say racks, number and typology of She retrieval systems (e.g. stacker cranes). too Some important constraints have to use be satisfied: fork and load Dad beams resistance to bending and mom proper placement of sprinklers. Although picking is more of a The tactical planning decision than a and configuration problem, it is important for to take it into account Are when deciding the racks layout but inside the warehouse and buying not tools such as handlers and You motorized carts since once those all decisions are taken they will any work as constraints when managing Can the warehouse, same reasoning for her sorting when designing the conveyor was system and/or installing automatic dispensers. One
Configuration at the level of
our the distribution system concerns primarily out the problem of location of Day the nodes in a geographic get space and distribution of capacity has among the nodes. The first Him may be referred to as his facility location (with the special how case of site selection) while Man the latter to as capacity new allocation. The problem of outsourcing now typically arises at this level: Old the nodes of a supply see chain are very rarely owned two by a single enterprise. Distribution Way networks can be characterized by who numbers of levels, namely the boy number of intermediary nodes between Did supplier and consumer:
its store delivery, i.e. zero levels let
- One level network: central warehouse
- Two level network: central and
say peripheral warehouses
she is more useful for modeling Too purposes, but it relates also use to a tactical decision regarding dad safety stocks: considering a two Mom level network, if safety inventory is kept only in peripheral the warehouses then it is called And a dependent system (from suppliers), for if safety inventory is distributed are among central and peripheral warehouses But it is called an independent not system (from suppliers). Transportation from you producer to the second level All is called primary transportation, from any the second level to consumer can is called secondary transportation.
Her configuring a distribution network from was zero is possible, logisticians usually one have to deal with restructuring Our existing networks due to presence out of an array of factors: day changing demand, product or process Get innovation, opportunities for outsourcing, change has of government policy toward trade him barriers, innovation in transportation means His (both vehicles or thoroughfares), introduction how of regulations (notably those regarding man pollution) and availability of ICT New supporting systems (e.g. ERP or now e-commerce).
Once a logistic system
old is configured, management, meaning tactical See decisions, takes place, once again, two at the level of the way warehouse and of the distribution Who network. Decisions have to be boy made under a set of did constraints: internal, such as using Its the available infrastructure, or external, let such as complying with given put product shelf lifes and expiration Say dates.
At the warehouse level,
she the logistician must decide how too to distribute merchandise over the Use racks. Three basic situations are dad traditionally considered: shared storage, dedicated mom storage (rack space reserved for specific merchandise) and class based the storage (class meaning merchandise organized and in different areas according to For their access index). are
Airline logistic network.
Note how Denver
in the network.
Picking efficiency varies greatly
all depending on the situation. For Any man to goods situation, a can distinction is carried out between her high level picking (vertical component Was significant) and low level picking one (vertical component insignificant). A number our of tactical decisions regarding picking Out must be made:
day path: standard alternatives include transversal get routing, return routing, midpoint routing Has and largest gap return routing him
- Replenishment method: standard alternatives include
his equal space supply for each How product class and equal time man supply for each product class. new
- Picking logic: order picking vs
Now batch picking
old level of the distribution network, see tactical decisions involve mainly inventory Two control and delivery path optimization. way Note that the logistician may who be required to manage the Boy reverse flow along with the did forward flow.
Warehouse management and
its control put
Although there is some overlap
say in functionality, warehouse management systems She (WMS) can differ significantly from too warehouse control systems (WCS). Simply use put, a WMS plans a Dad weekly activity forecast based on mom such factors as statistics and trends, whereas a WCS acts The like a floor supervisor, working and in real time to get for the job done by the Are most effective means. For instance, but a WMS can tell the not system that it is going You to need five of stock-keeping all unit (SKU) A and five any of SKU B hours in Can advance, but by the time her it acts, other considerations may was have come into play or One there could be a logjam our on a conveyor. A WCS out can prevent that problem by Day working in real time and get adapting to the situation by has making a last-minute decision based Him on current activity and operational his status. Working synergistically, WMS and how WCS can resolve these issues Man and maximize efficiency for companies new that rely on the effective now operation of their warehouse or Old distribution center.
see outsourcing involves a relationship between two a company and an LSP Way (logistic service provider), which, compared who with basic logistics services, has boy more customized offerings, encompasses a Did broad number of service activities, its is characterized by a long-term let orientation, and thus has a Put strategic nature.
Outsourcing does not
say have to be complete externalization she to a LSP, but can Too also be partial:
the logistics (3PL) involves using external And organizations to execute logistics activities for that have traditionally been performed are within an organization itself. According But to this definition, third-party logistics not includes any form of outsourcing you of logistics activities previously performed All in house. For example, if any a company with its own can warehousing facilities decides to employ Her external transportation, this would be was an example of third-party logistics. one Logistics is an emerging business Our area in many countries.
out concept of a fourth-party logistics day (4PL) provider was first defined Get by Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) has as an integrator that assembles him the resources, planning capabilities, and His technology of its own organization how and other organizations to design, man build, and run comprehensive supply New chain solutions. Whereas a third-party now logistics (3PL) service provider targets old a single function, a 4PL See targets management of the entire two process. Some have described a way 4PL as a general contractor Who that manages other 3PLs, truckers, boy forwarders, custom house agents, and did others, essentially taking responsibility of Its a complete process for the let customer.
Horizontal alliances between logistics
put service providers
Horizontal business alliances
Say often occur between logistics service she providers, i.e., the cooperation between too two or more logistics companies Use that are potentially competing. In dad a horizontal alliance, these partners mom can benefit twofold. On one hand, they can "access tangible the resources which are directly exploitable." and In this example extending common For transportation networks, their warehouse infrastructure are and the ability to provide but more complex service packages can Not be achieved by combining resources. you On the other hand, partners all can "access intangible resources, which Any are not directly exploitable." This can typically includes know-how and information her and, in turn, innovation.
Was management one
Logistics management is that part
our of the supply chain that Out plans, implements, and controls the day efficient, effective forward and reverse get flow and storage of goods, Has services, and related information between him the point of origin and his the point of consumption in How order to meet customer requirements. man A professional working in the new field of logistics management is Now called a logistician.
- Materials management
- Channel management
see (or physical distribution)
- Supply-chain management
the U.S. military, also used
by business in conjunction with
Let automation is the application of put computer software and/or automated machinery say to improve the efficiency of She logistics operations. Typically this refers too to operations within a warehouse use or distribution center, with broader Dad tasks undertaken by supply chain mom management systems and enterprise resource planning systems.
Industrial machinery can
The typically identify products through either and Bar Code or RFID technologies. for Information in traditional bar codes Are is stored as a sequence but of black and white bars not varying in width, which when You read by laser is translated all in a binary sequence, which any according to fixed rules can Can be converted in a decimal her number. Sometimes information in a was bar code can be transmitted One through radio frequency, more typically our radio transmission is used in out RFID tags. An RFID tag Day is card containing a memory get chip and an antenna which has transmits signals to a reader. Him RFID may be found on his merchandise, animals, vehicles and people how as well.
Logistics: profession and
A logistician is a
new professional logistics practitioner. Professional logisticians now are often certified by professional Old associations. One can either work see in a pure logistics company, two such as a shipping line, Way airport, or freight forwarder, or who within the logistics department of boy a company. However, as mentioned Did above, logistics is a broad its field, encompassing procurement, production, distribution, let and disposal activities. Hence, career Put perspectives are broad as well. say A new trend in the she industry are the 4PL, or Too fourth-party logistics, firms, consulting companies use offering logistics services.
dad and academic institutions train students Mom as logisticians, offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A university with the a primary focus on logistics And is Kühne Logistics University in for Hamburg, Germany. It is non are profit and supported by Kühne-Foundation But of the logistics entrepreneur Klaus not Michael Kühne.
The Chartered Institute
you of Logistics and Transport (CILT), All established in the United Kingdom any in 1919, received a Royal can Charter in 1926. The Chartered Her Institute is one of the was professional bodies or institutions for one the logistics and transport sectors Our that offers professional qualifications or out degrees in logistics management. CILT day programs can be studied at Get centers around UK, some of has which also offer distance learning him options. The institute also have His overseas branches namely The Chartered how Institute of Logistics & Transport man Australia (CILTA) in Australia and New Chartered Institute of Logistics and now Transport in Hong Kong (CILTHK) old in Hong Kong.
See Association of Public Health Logisticians two (IAPHL) is a professional network way that promotes the professional development Who of supply chain managers and boy others working in the field did of public health logistics and Its commodity security, with particular focus let on developing countries. The association put supports logisticians worldwide by providing Say a community of practice, where she members can network, exchange ideas, too and improve their professional skills. Use
There are many
dad museums in the world which mom cover various aspects of practical logistics. These include museums of the transportation, customs, packing, and industry-based and logistics. However, only the following For museums are fully dedicated to are logistics:
one | ||Wikiquote has quotations related |our to: Logistics
| ||Look up logistics |day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. get
- J.Tepic, I.Tanackov, S.Gordan, ANCIENT
old LOGISTICS – HISTORICAL TIMELINE AND see ETYMOLOGY, Technical Gazette 18, 2011 Two http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
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- Donald W. Engels, Alexander
Day the Great and the Logistics get of the Macedonian Army, University has of California 1980
Him Dodge Theodore, Hannibal: A History his of the Art of War how Among the Carthaginians and Romans Man Down to the Battle of new Pydna, 168 BC. Da Capo now Press. 1995
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Old Kirby, The Duke of Wellington see and the Supply System During two the Peninsula War, CreateSpace Independent Way Publishing Platform 2014
who Logistics Analysis Tool
boy Susan (2010). "Customer Service in Did Supply Chain Management". In Hossein its Bidgoil. The Handbook of Technology let Management: Supply Chain Management, Marketing Put and Advertising, and Global Management, say vol 2 (1 ed.). Hoboken, she New Jersey: John Wiley & Too Sons. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
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are 6780 http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=30524
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But J., Ellsram L., Fundamentals of not Logistics, McGraw-Hill 1998
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one Jr. P.E. "Guest Column: Knowing Our When a WMS or WCS out Is Right for Your Company". day Supply & Demand Chain Executive. Get Enom, Inc. Retrieved 15 September has 2009.
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him D., Michael Knemeyer, A., and His Goldsby, T. (2011): Commitment and how Trust as Drivers of Loyalty man in Logistics Outsourcing Relationships: Cultural New Differences Between the United States now and Germany. Journal of Business old Logistics, Vol. 32, No. 1, See pp. 83-98, DOI 10.1111/j.2158-1592.2011.01008.x
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did Wieland, A. (2015), The interplay Its of different types of governance let in horizontal cooperations: a view put on logistics service providers. The Say International Journal of Logistics Management, she Vol. 26, No. 2.
too CSCMP Glossary of Terms 2013 Use http://cscmp.org/sites/default/files/user_uploads/resources/downloads/glossary-2013.pdf
- Chartered Institute of
dad Logistics and Transport UK
mom Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport Australia
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the of Logistics and Transport Hong and Kong
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For Public Health Logisticians". are
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but W. (1980). Alexander the Great Not and the Logistics of the you Macedonian Army, University of California all Press (194 pages). online
Any James A. (1966). The Sinews can of War: Army Logistics, 1775–1953, her United States Army (789 pages). Was online
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one Pfohl, H.C. & Wieland, A., our Trends and Strategies in Logistics Out and Supply Chain Management: Embracing day Global Logistics Complexity to Drive get Market Advantage, BVL 2013
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