But is the management of the not flow of things between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet requirements of customers can or corporations. The resources managed Her in logistics can include physical was items, such as food, materials, one animals, equipment and liquids, as Our well as abstract items, such out as time, information, particles, and day energy. The logistics of physical Get items usually involves the integration has of information flow, which ismaterial him handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, His warehousing, and often security. The how complexity of logistics can be man modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized New by dedicated simulation software. The now minimization of the use of old resources is a common motivation See in logistics for import and two export. did Its Logistics Specialist
in a storeroom aboard the
aircraft carrier USS George H.W.
, where inventorying means making
a report on stock availability.
Notice how every stock keeping
has an individual code
and a code corresponding to
a specific subclass from a
Origins and definition
The prevalent view is that
him the term logistics comes from his the late 19th century: from How French logistique (loger means to man lodge). Others attribute a Greek new origin to the word: λόγος, Now meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, old meaning accountant or responsible for see counting.
The Oxford English Dictionary
Two defines logistics as "the branch way of military science relating to who procuring, maintaining and transporting material, Boy personnel and facilities." However, the did New Oxford American Dictionary defines its logistics as "the detailed coordination Let of a complex operation involving put many people, facilities, or supplies," say and the Oxford Dictionary on-line She defines it as "the detailed too organization and implementation of a use complex operation." As such, logistics Dad is commonly seen as a mom branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine The systems."
According to the Council
and of Logistics Management, logistics includes for the integrated planning, control, realization, Are and monitoring of all internal but and network-wide material, part, and not product flow, including the necessary You information flow, industrial and trading all companies along the complete value-added any chain (and product life cycle) Can for the purpose of conforming her to customer requirements.
was the process of planning, implementing, One and controlling the effective and our efficient flow of goods and out services from the point of Day origin to the point of get consumption.
Academics and practitioners traditionally
has refer to the terms operations Him or production management when referring his to physical transformations taking place how in a single business location Man (factory, restaurant or even bank new clerking) and reserve the term now logistics for activities related to Old distribution, that is, moving products see on the territory. Managing a two distribution center is seen, therefore, Way as pertaining to the realm who of logistics since, while in boy theory the products made by Did a factory are ready for its consumption they still need to let be moved along the distribution Put network according to some logic, say and the distribution center aggregates she and processes orders coming from Too different areas of the territory. use That being said, from a dad modeling perspective, there are similarities Mom between operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid the professionals, with for ex. "Director And of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" for working on similar problems. Furthermore, are the term supply chain management But originally refers to, among other not issues, having a global vision you in of both production and All logistics from point of origin any to point of production. All can these terms may suffer from Her semantic change as a side was effect of advertising.
Inbound logistics is one of
Our the primary processes of logistics, out concentrating on purchasing and arranging day the inbound movement of materials, Get parts, and/or finished inventory from has suppliers to manufacturing or assembly him plants, warehouses, or retail stores. His Outbound logistics is the process how related to the storage and man movement of the final product New and the related information flows now from the end of the old production line to the end See user.
two services performed by logisticians, the way main fields of logistics can Who be broken down as follows: boy
- Procurement logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Green logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
- Asset Control Logistics
- POS Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
too logistics consists of activities such Use as market research, requirements planning, dad make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, mom and order controlling. The targets in procurement logistics might be the contradictory: maximizing efficiency by concentrating and on core competences, outsourcing while For maintaining the autonomy of the are company, or minimizing procurement costs but while maximizing security within the Not supply process.
Distribution logistics has,
you as main tasks, the delivery all of the finished products to Any the customer. It consists of can order processing, warehousing, and transportation. her Distribution logistics is necessary because Was the time, place, and quantity one of production differs with the our time, place, and quantity of Out consumption.
Disposal logistics has as
day its main function to reduce get logistics cost(s) and enhance service(s) Has related to the disposal of him waste produced during the operation his of a business.
How denotes all those operations related man to the reuse of products new and materials. The reverse logistics Now process includes the management and old the sale of surpluses, as see well as products being returned Two to vendors from buyers. Reverse way logistics stands for all operations who related to the reuse of Boy products and materials. It is did "the process of planning, implementing, its and controlling the efficient, cost Let effective flow of raw materials, put in-process inventory, finished goods and say related information from the point She of consumption to the point too of origin for the purpose use of recapturing value or proper Dad disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics mom is the process of moving goods from their typical final The destination for the purpose of and capturing value, or proper disposal. for The opposite of reverse logistics Are is forward logistics.
but describes all attempts to measure not and minimize the ecological impact You of logistics activities. This includes all all activities of the forward any and reverse flows. This can Can be achieved through intermodal freight her transport, path optimization, vehicle saturation was and city logistics.
One (see also Logistic engineering) combines our both business logistics and military out logistics since it is concerned Day with highly complicated technological systems get for which Reliability, Availability and has Maintainability are essential, ex: weapon Him systems and military supercomputers.
his Control Logistics: companies in the how retail channels, both organized retailers Man and suppliers, often deploy assets new required for the display, preservation, now promotion of their products. Some Old examples are refrigerators, stands, display see monitors, seasonal equipment, poster stands two & frames. Way
A forklift truck loads
a pallet of humanitarian aid
to Pakistan on board a
C-17 aircraft, following devastating floods
in the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is
Put a term used by the say logistics, supply chain, and manufacturing she industries to denote specific time-critical Too modes of transport used to use move goods or objects rapidly dad in the event of an Mom emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services could be the a production delay or anticipated And production delay, or an urgent for need for specialized equipment to are prevent events such as aircraft But being grounded (also known as not "aircraft on ground"—AOG), ships being you delayed, or telecommunications failure. Emergency All logistics services are typically sourced any from a specialist provider.
can term production logistics describes logistic Her processes within a value adding was system (ex:factory or a mine). one Production logistics aims to ensure Our that each machine and workstation out receives the right product in day the right quantity and quality Get at the right time. The has concern is not the transportation him itself, but to streamline and His control the flow through value-adding how processes and to eliminate non–value-adding man processes. Production logistics can operate New in existing as well as now new plants. Manufacturing in an old existing plant is a constantly See changing process. Machines are exchanged two and new ones added, which way gives the opportunity to improve Who the production logistics system accordingly. boy Production logistics provides the means did to achieve customer response and Its capital efficiency.
Production logistics becomes
let more important with decreasing batch put sizes. In many industries (e.g. Say mobile phones), the short-term goal she is a batch size of too one, allowing even a single Use customer's demand to be fulfilled dad efficiently. Track and tracing, which mom is an essential part of production logistics due to product the safety and reliability issues, is and also gaining importance, especially in For the automotive and medical industries. are
Punjab Regiment uses mules for
carrying cargo in Burma
WWII. Animals have been used
for logistic purposes by different
people throughout history, the Roman
army in particular preferred mules
over donkeys for their moving
our science, maintaining one's supply lines Out while disrupting those of the day enemy is a crucial—some would get say the most crucial—element of Has military strategy, since an armed him force without resources and transportation his is defenseless. The defeat of How the British in the American man War of Independence and the new defeat of the Axis in Now the African theater of World old War II are attributed by see some scholars to logistical failures. Two The historical leaders Hannibal Barca, way Alexander the Great, and the who Duke of Wellington are considered Boy to have been logistical geniuses. did
Military have a significant need
its for logistics solutions and so Let have developed advanced implementations. Integrated put Logistics Support (ILS) is a say discipline used in military industries She to ensure an easily supportable too system with a robust customer use service (logistic) concept at the Dad lowest cost and in line mom with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as The defined for the project.
and military logistics, logistics officers manage for how and when to move Are resources to the places they but are needed.
Supply chain management
not in military logistics often deals You with a number of variables all in predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, any and future demand. The United Can States Armed Forces' categorical supply her classification was developed in such was a way that categories of One supply with similar consumption variables our are grouped together for planning out purposes. For instance, peacetime consumption Day of ammunition and fuel will get be considerably lower than wartime has consumption of these items, whereas Him other classes of supply such his as subsistence and clothing have how a relatively consistent consumption rate Man regardless of war or peace. new
Some classes of supply have
now a linear demand relationship: as Old more troops are added, more see supply items are needed; or two as more equipment is used, Way more fuel and ammunition are who consumed. Other classes of supply boy must consider a third variable Did besides usage and quantity: time. its As equipment ages, more and let more repair parts are needed Put over time, even when usage say and quantity stays consistent. By she recording and analyzing these trends Too over time and applying them use to future scenarios, the US dad Armed Forces can accurately supply Mom troops with the items necessary at the precise moment they the are needed. History has shown And that good logistical planning creates for a lean and efficient fighting are force. The lack thereof can But lead to a clunky, slow, not and ill-equipped force with too you much or too little supply. All
logistics provider's warehouse of goods
was definition of business logistics speaks one of "having the right item Our in the right quantity at out the right time at the day right place for the right Get price in the right condition has to the right customer". Business him logistics incorporates all industry sectors His and aims to manage the how fruition of project life cycles, man supply chains, and resultant efficiencies. New
The term "business logistics" has
now evolved since the 1960s due old to the increasing complexity of See supplying businesses with materials and two shipping out products in an way increasingly globalized supply chain, leading Who to a call for professionals boy called "supply chain logisticians".
did business, logistics may have either Its an internal focus (inbound logistics) let or an external focus (outbound put logistics), covering the flow and Say storage of materials from point she of origin to point of too consumption (see supply-chain management). The Use main functions of a qualified dad logistician include inventory management, purchasing, mom transportation, warehousing, consultation, and the organizing and planning of these the activities. Logisticians combine a professional and knowledge of each of these For functions to coordinate resources in are an organization.
There are two
but fundamentally different forms of logistics: Not one optimizes a steady flow you of material through a network all of transport links and storage Any nodes, while the other coordinates can a sequence of resources to her carry out some project (ex:restructuring Was a warehouse).
Nodes of a
one distribution network
The nodes of
our a distribution network include:
Dad be some intermediaries operating for mom representative matters between nodes such as sales agents or brokers. The
Logistic families and metrics
and logistic family is a set for of products which share a Are common characteristic: weight and volumetric but characteristics, physical storing needs (temperature, not radiation,...), handling needs, order frequency, You package size, etc. The following all metrics may be used by any the company to organize its Can products in different families:
- Physical metrics used to evaluate
was inventory systems include stocking capacity, One selectivity, superficial utilization, volumetric utilization, our transport capacity, transport capacity utilization. out
- Monetary metrics used include space
Day holding costs (building, shelving and get services) and handling costs (people, has handling machinery, energy and maintenance). Him
Other metrics may present
his themselves in both physical or how monetary form, such as the Man standard Inventory turnover.
new order processing now Unit loads
of luggage at the airport,
in this case the unit
load has protective function.
Unit loads are combinations
who of individual items which are boy moved by handling systems, usually Did employing a pallet of normed its dimensions.
Handling systems include: trans-pallet
let handlers, counterweight handler, retractable mast Put handler, bilateral handlers, trilateral handlers, say AGV and stacker handlers. Storage she systems include: pile stocking, cell Too racks (either static or movable), use cantilever racks and gravity racks. dad
Order processing is a sequential
Mom process involving: processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items the from loading units), sorting (assembling And items based on destination), package for formation (weighting, labeling and packing), are order consolidation (gathering packages into But loading units for transportation, control not and bill of lading).
you can be both manual or All automated. Manual picking can be any both man to goods, i.e. can operator using a cart or Her conveyor belt, or goods to was man, i.e. the operator benefiting one from the presence of a Our mini-load ASRS, vertical or horizontal out carousel or from an Automatic day Vertical Storage System (AVSS). Automatic Get picking is done either with has dispensers or depalletizing robots.
him can be done manually through His carts or conveyor belts, or how automatically through sorters.
Cargo, i.e. merchandise
New being transported, can be moved now through a variety of transportation old means and is organized in See different shipment categories. Unit loads two are usually assembled into higher way standardized units such as: ISO Who containers, swap bodies or semi-trailers. boy Especially for very long distances, did product transportation will likely benefit Its from using different transportation means: let multimodal transport, intermodal transport (no put handling) and combined transport (minimal Say road transport). When moving cargo, she typical constraints are maximum weight too and volume.
Operators involved in
Use transportation include: all train, road dad vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, couriers, mom freight forwarders and multi-modal transport operators.
Merchandise being transported internationally
the is usually subject to the and Incoterms standards issued by the For International Chamber of Commerce.
are and management but
Push-Back rack for motorcycles,
rack system for
all production systems, logistic systems need Any to be properly configured and can managed. Actually a number of her methodologies have been directly borrowed Was from operations management such as one using Economic Order Quantity models our for managing inventory in the Out nodes of the network. Distribution day resource planning (DRP) is similar get to MRP, except that it Has doesn't concern activities inside the him nodes of the network but his planning distribution when moving goods How through the links of the man network.
Traditionally in logistics configuration
new may be at the level Now of the warehouse (node) or old at level of the distribution see system (network).
Regarding a single
Two warehouse, besides the issue of way designing and building the warehouse, who configuration means solving a number Boy of interrelated technical-economic problems: dimensioning did rack cells, choosing a palletizing its method (manual or through robots), Let rack dimensioning and design, number put of racks, number and typology say of retrieval systems (e.g. stacker She cranes). Some important constraints have too to be satisfied: fork and use load beams resistance to bending Dad and proper placement of sprinklers. mom Although picking is more of a tactical planning decision than The a configuration problem, it is and important to take it into for account when deciding the racks Are layout inside the warehouse and but buying tools such as handlers not and motorized carts since once You those decisions are taken they all will work as constraints when any managing the warehouse, same reasoning Can for sorting when designing the her conveyor system and/or installing automatic was dispensers.
Configuration at the level
One of the distribution system concerns our primarily the problem of location out of the nodes in a Day geographic space and distribution of get capacity among the nodes. The has first may be referred to Him as facility location (with the his special case of site selection) how while the latter to as Man capacity allocation. The problem of new outsourcing typically arises at this now level: the nodes of a Old supply chain are very rarely see owned by a single enterprise. two Distribution networks can be characterized Way by numbers of levels, namely who the number of intermediary nodes boy between supplier and consumer:
- Direct store delivery, i.e. zero
- One level network: central
- Two level network: central
Put and peripheral warehouses
say distinction is more useful for she modeling purposes, but it relates Too also to a tactical decision use regarding safety stocks: considering a dad two level network, if safety Mom inventory is kept only in peripheral warehouses then it is the called a dependent system (from And suppliers), if safety inventory is for distributed among central and peripheral are warehouses it is called an But independent system (from suppliers). Transportation not from producer to the second you level is called primary transportation, All from the second level to any consumer is called secondary transportation. can
Although configuring a distribution network
Her from zero is possible, logisticians was usually have to deal with one restructuring existing networks due to Our presence of an array of out factors: changing demand, product or day process innovation, opportunities for outsourcing, Get change of government policy toward has trade barriers, innovation in transportation him means (both vehicles or thoroughfares), His introduction of regulations (notably those how regarding pollution) and availability of man ICT supporting systems (e.g. ERP New or e-commerce).
Once a logistic
now system is configured, management, meaning old tactical decisions, takes place, once See again, at the level of two the warehouse and of the way distribution network. Decisions have to Who be made under a set boy of constraints: internal, such as did using the available infrastructure, or Its external, such as complying with let given product shelf lifes and put expiration dates.
At the warehouse
Say level, the logistician must decide she how to distribute merchandise over too the racks. Three basic situations Use are traditionally considered: shared storage, dad dedicated storage (rack space reserved mom for specific merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning merchandise the organized in different areas according and to their access index). For
network. Note how Denver
in the network.
Picking efficiency varies
you greatly depending on the situation. all For man to goods situation, Any a distinction is carried out can between high level picking (vertical her component significant) and low level Was picking (vertical component insignificant). A one number of tactical decisions regarding our picking must be made:
- Routing path: standard alternatives include
day transversal routing, return routing, midpoint get routing and largest gap return Has routing
- Replenishment method: standard alternatives
him include equal space supply for his each product class and equal How time supply for each product man class.
- Picking logic: order picking
new vs batch picking
Now the level of the distribution old network, tactical decisions involve mainly see inventory control and delivery path Two optimization. Note that the logistician way may be required to manage who the reverse flow along with Boy the forward flow.
did and control
Although there is some
put overlap in functionality, warehouse management say systems (WMS) can differ significantly She from warehouse control systems (WCS). too Simply put, a WMS plans use a weekly activity forecast based Dad on such factors as statistics mom and trends, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, The working in real time to and get the job done by for the most effective means. For Are instance, a WMS can tell but the system that it is not going to need five of You stock-keeping unit (SKU) A and all five of SKU B hours any in advance, but by the Can time it acts, other considerations her may have come into play was or there could be a One logjam on a conveyor. A our WCS can prevent that problem out by working in real time Day and adapting to the situation get by making a last-minute decision has based on current activity and Him operational status. Working synergistically, WMS his and WCS can resolve these how issues and maximize efficiency for Man companies that rely on the new effective operation of their warehouse now or distribution center.
Logistics outsourcing involves a relationship
see between a company and an two LSP (logistic service provider), which, Way compared with basic logistics services, who has more customized offerings, encompasses boy a broad number of service Did activities, is characterized by a its long-term orientation, and thus has let a strategic nature.
Put not have to be complete say externalization to a LSP, but she can also be partial:
Third-party logistics (3PL) involves using
the external organizations to execute logistics And activities that have traditionally been for performed within an organization itself. are According to this definition, third-party But logistics includes any form of not outsourcing of logistics activities previously you performed in house. For example, All if a company with its any own warehousing facilities decides to can employ external transportation, this would Her be an example of third-party was logistics. Logistics is an emerging one business area in many countries. Our
The concept of a fourth-party
out logistics (4PL) provider was first day defined by Andersen Consulting (now Get Accenture) as an integrator that has assembles the resources, planning capabilities, him and technology of its own His organization and other organizations to how design, build, and run comprehensive man supply chain solutions. Whereas a New third-party logistics (3PL) service provider now targets a single function, a old 4PL targets management of the See entire process. Some have described two a 4PL as a general way contractor that manages other 3PLs, Who truckers, forwarders, custom house agents, boy and others, essentially taking responsibility did of a complete process for Its the customer.
put is that part of the Say supply chain that plans, implements, she and controls the efficient, effective too forward and reverse flow and Use storage of goods, services, and dad related information between the point mom of origin and the point of consumption in order to the meet customer requirements. A professional and working in the field of For logistics management is called a are logistician.
- Materials management
- Channel management
- Distribution (or physical
- Supply-chain management
used by the U.S.
military, also used by business
in conjunction with manual picking.
Logistics automation is
one the application of computer software our and/or automated machinery to improve Out the efficiency of logistics operations. day Typically this refers to operations get within a warehouse or distribution Has center, with broader tasks undertaken him by supply chain management systems his and enterprise resource planning systems. How
Industrial machinery can typically identify
man products through either Bar Code new or RFID technologies. Information in Now traditional bar codes is stored old as a sequence of black see and white bars varying in Two width, which when read by way laser is translated in a who binary sequence, which according to Boy fixed rules can be converted did in a decimal number. Sometimes its information in a bar code Let can be transmitted through radio put frequency, more typically radio transmission say is used in RFID tags. She An RFID tag is card too containing a memory chip and use an antenna which transmits signals Dad to a reader. RFID may mom be found on merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well. The
Logistics: profession and organizations
and logistician is a professional logistics for practitioner. Professional logisticians are often Are certified by professional associations. One but can either work in a not pure logistics company, such as You a shipping line, airport, or all freight forwarder, or within the any logistics department of a company. Can However, as mentioned above, logistics her is a broad field, encompassing was procurement, production, distribution, and disposal One activities. Hence, career perspectives are our broad as well. A new out trend in the industry are Day the 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, get firms, consulting companies offering logistics has services.
Some universities and academic
Him institutions train students as logisticians, his offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. how A university with a primary Man focus on logistics is Kühne new Logistics University in Hamburg, Germany. now It is non profit and Old supported by Kühne-Foundation of the see logistics entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne. two
The Chartered Institute of Logistics
Way and Transport (CILT), established in who the United Kingdom in 1919, boy received a Royal Charter in Did 1926. The Chartered Institute is its one of the professional bodies let or institutions for the logistics Put and transport sectors that offers say professional qualifications or degrees in she logistics management. CILT programs can Too be studied at centers around use UK, some of which also dad offer distance learning options. The Mom institute also have overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of the Logistics & Transport Australia (CILTA) And in Australia and Chartered Institute for of Logistics and Transport in are Hong Kong (CILTHK) in Hong But Kong.
The International Association of
not Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is you a professional network that promotes All the professional development of supply any chain managers and others working can in the field of public Her health logistics and commodity security, was with particular focus on developing one countries. The association supports logisticians Our worldwide by providing a community out of practice, where members can day network, exchange ideas, and improve Get their professional skills.
There are many museums in
him the world which cover various His aspects of practical logistics. These how include museums of transportation, customs, man packing, and industry-based logistics. However, New only the following museums are now fully dedicated to logistics:
| ||Wikiquote has quotations |let related to: Logistics put
| ||Look up |Say logistics in Wiktionary, the free she dictionary.
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All Chartered Institute of Logistics and any Transport Australia
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