But is the management of the not flow of goods between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet requirements of customers can or corporations. The resources managed Her in logistics can include physical was items, such as food, materials, one animals, equipment and liquids, as Our well as abstract items, such out as time, information, particles, and day energy. The logistics of physical Get items usually involves the integration has of information flow, material handling, him production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, His and often security. The complexity how of logistics can be modeled, man analyzed, visualized, and optimized by New dedicated simulation software. The minimization now of the use of resources old is a common motivation in See logistics for import and export. two Its Logistics Specialist
inventories supplies in
a storeroom aboard the aircraft
carrier USS George H.W. Bush
where inventorying means making a
report on stock availability. Notice
how every stock keeping unit
has an individual code and
a code corresponding to a
specific subclass from a given
Origins and definition
Has prevalent view is that the him term logistics comes from the his late 19th century: from French How logistique (loger means to lodge). man Others attribute a Greek origin new to the word: λόγος, meaning Now reason or speech; λογιστικός, meaning old accountant or responsible for counting. see
The Oxford English Dictionary defines
Two logistics as "the branch of way military science relating to procuring, who maintaining and transporting material, personnel Boy and facilities." However, the New did Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics its as "the detailed coordination of Let a complex operation involving many put people, facilities, or supplies," and say the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines She it as "the detailed organization too and implementation of a complex use operation." As such, logistics is Dad commonly seen as a branch mom of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems." The
According to the Council of
and Logistics Management, logistics includes the for integrated planning, control, realization, and Are monitoring of all internal and but network-wide material, part, and product not flow, including the necessary information You flow, industrial and trading companies all along the complete value-added chain any (and product life cycle) for Can the purpose of conforming to her customer requirements.
Logistics is the
was process of planning, implementing, and One controlling the effective and efficient our flow of goods and services out from the point of origin Day to the point of consumption. get
Academics and practitioners traditionally refer
has to the terms operations or Him production management when referring to his physical transformations taking place in how a single business location (factory, Man restaurant or even bank clerking) new and reserve the term logistics now for activities related to distribution, Old that is, moving products on see the territory. Managing a distribution two center is seen, therefore, as Way pertaining to the realm of who logistics since, while in theory boy the products made by a Did factory are ready for consumption its they still need to be let moved along the distribution network Put according to some logic, and say the distribution center aggregates and she processes orders coming from different Too areas of the territory. That use being said, from a modeling dad perspective, there are similarities between Mom operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid professionals, the with for ex. "Director of And Operations" or "Logistics Officer" working for on similar problems. Furthermore, the are term supply chain management originally But refers to, among other issues, not having a global vision in you of both production and logistics All from point of origin to any point of production. All these can terms may suffer from semantic Her change as a side effect was of advertising.
one logistics is one of the Our primary processes of logistics, concentrating out on purchasing and arranging the day inbound movement of materials, parts, Get and/or finished inventory from suppliers has to manufacturing or assembly plants, him warehouses, or retail stores. Outbound His logistics is the process related how to the storage and movement man of the final product and New the related information flows from now the end of the production old line to the end user. See
Given the services
two performed by logisticians, the main way fields of logistics can be Who broken down as follows: boy
- Procurement logistics
- Distribution logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Green logistics
- Global logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- Asset Control Logistics
Say Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
too consists of activities such as Use market research, requirements planning, make-or-buy dad decisions, supplier management, ordering, and mom order controlling. The targets in procurement logistics might be contradictory: the maximizing efficiency by concentrating on and core competences, outsourcing while maintaining For the autonomy of the company, are or minimizing procurement costs while but maximizing security within the supply Not process.
Distribution logistics has, as
you main tasks, the delivery of all the finished products to the Any customer. It consists of order can processing, warehousing, and transportation. Distribution her logistics is necessary because the Was time, place, and quantity of one production differs with the time, our place, and quantity of consumption. Out
Disposal logistics has as its
day main function to reduce logistics get cost(s) and enhance service(s) related Has to the disposal of waste him produced during the operation of his a business.
Reverse logistics denotes
How all those operations related to man the reuse of products and new materials. The reverse logistics process Now includes the management and the old sale of surpluses, as well see as products being returned to Two vendors from buyers. Reverse logistics way stands for all operations related who to the reuse of products Boy and materials. It is "the did process of planning, implementing, and its controlling the efficient, cost effective Let flow of raw materials, in-process put inventory, finished goods and related say information from the point of She consumption to the point of too origin for the purpose of use recapturing value or proper disposal. Dad More precisely, reverse logistics is mom the process of moving goods from their typical final destination The for the purpose of capturing and value, or proper disposal. The for opposite of reverse logistics is Are forward logistics.
Green Logistics describes
but all attempts to measure and not minimize the ecological impact of You logistics activities. This includes all all activities of the forward and any reverse flows. This can be Can achieved through intermodal freight transport, her path optimization, vehicle saturation and was city logistics.
RAM Logistics (see
One also Logistic engineering) combines both our business logistics and military logistics out since it is concerned with Day highly complicated technological systems for get which Reliability, Availability and Maintainability has are essential, ex: weapon systems Him and military supercomputers.
his Logistics: companies in the retail how channels, both organized retailers and Man suppliers, often deploy assets required new for the display, preservation, promotion now of their products. Some examples Old are refrigerators, stands, display monitors, see seasonal equipment, poster stands & two frames. Way
A forklift truck loads a
pallet of humanitarian aid to
Pakistan on board a C-17
aircraft, following devastating floods
the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is a
Put term used by the logistics, say supply chain, and manufacturing industries she to denote specific time-critical modes Too of transport used to move use goods or objects rapidly in dad the event of an emergency. Mom The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services could be a the production delay or anticipated production And delay, or an urgent need for for specialized equipment to prevent are events such as aircraft being But grounded (also known as "aircraft not on ground"—AOG), ships being delayed, you or telecommunications failure. Emergency logistics All services are typically sourced from any a specialist provider.
can production logistics describes logistic processes Her within a value adding system was (ex:factory or a mine). Production one logistics aims to ensure that Our each machine and workstation receives out the right product in the day right quantity and quality at Get the right time. The concern has is not the transportation itself, him but to streamline and control His the flow through value-adding processes how and to eliminate non–value-adding processes. man Production logistics can operate in New existing as well as new now plants. Manufacturing in an existing old plant is a constantly changing See process. Machines are exchanged and two new ones added, which gives way the opportunity to improve the Who production logistics system accordingly. Production boy logistics provides the means to did achieve customer response and capital Its efficiency.
Production logistics becomes more
let important with decreasing batch sizes. put In many industries (e.g. mobile Say phones), the short-term goal is she a batch size of one, too allowing even a single customer's Use demand to be fulfilled efficiently. dad Track and tracing, which is mom an essential part of production logistics due to product safety the and reliability issues, is also and gaining importance, especially in the For automotive and medical industries.
are logistics but
Regiment uses mules for carrying
cargo in Burma
Animals have been used for
logistic purposes by different people
throughout history, the Roman army
in particular preferred mules over
donkeys for their moving capacity.
In military science,
our maintaining one's supply lines while Out disrupting those of the enemy day is a crucial—some would say get the most crucial—element of military Has strategy, since an armed force him without resources and transportation is his defenseless. The defeat of the How British in the American War man of Independence and the defeat new of the Axis in the Now African theater of World War old II are attributed by some see scholars to logistical failures. The Two historical leaders Hannibal Barca, Alexander way the Great, and the Duke who of Wellington are considered to Boy have been logistical geniuses.
did have a significant need for its logistics solutions and so have Let developed advanced implementations. Integrated Logistics put Support (ILS) is a discipline say used in military industries to She ensure an easily supportable system too with a robust customer service use (logistic) concept at the lowest Dad cost and in line with mom (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as defined The for the project.
and logistics, logistics officers manage how for and when to move resources Are to the places they are but needed.
Supply chain management in
not military logistics often deals with You a number of variables in all predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, and any future demand. The United States Can Armed Forces' categorical supply classification her was developed in such a was way that categories of supply One with similar consumption variables are our grouped together for planning purposes. out For instance, peacetime consumption of Day ammunition and fuel will be get considerably lower than wartime consumption has of these items, whereas other Him classes of supply such as his subsistence and clothing have a how relatively consistent consumption rate regardless Man of war or peace.
new classes of supply have a now linear demand relationship: as more Old troops are added, more supply see items are needed; or as two more equipment is used, more Way fuel and ammunition are consumed. who Other classes of supply must boy consider a third variable besides Did usage and quantity: time. As its equipment ages, more and more let repair parts are needed over Put time, even when usage and say quantity stays consistent. By recording she and analyzing these trends over Too time and applying them to use future scenarios, the US Armed dad Forces can accurately supply troops Mom with the items necessary at the precise moment they are the needed. History has shown that And good logistical planning creates a for lean and efficient fighting force. are The lack thereof can lead But to a clunky, slow, and not ill-equipped force with too much you or too little supply.
All logistics any
stacking a logistics
provider's warehouse of goods on
was of business logistics speaks of one "having the right item in Our the right quantity at the out right time at the right day place for the right price Get in the right condition to has the right customer". Business logistics him incorporates all industry sectors and His aims to manage the fruition how of project life cycles, supply man chains, and resultant efficiencies.
New term "business logistics" has evolved now since the 1960s due to old the increasing complexity of supplying See businesses with materials and shipping two out products in an increasingly way globalized supply chain, leading to Who a call for professionals called boy "supply chain logisticians".
did logistics may have either an Its internal focus (inbound logistics) or let an external focus (outbound logistics), put covering the flow and storage Say of materials from point of she origin to point of consumption too (see supply-chain management). The main Use functions of a qualified logistician dad include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, mom warehousing, consultation, and the organizing and planning of these activities. the Logisticians combine a professional knowledge and of each of these functions For to coordinate resources in an are organization.
There are two fundamentally
but different forms of logistics: one Not optimizes a steady flow of you material through a network of all transport links and storage nodes, Any while the other coordinates a can sequence of resources to carry her out some project (ex:restructuring a Was warehouse).
Nodes of a distribution
The nodes of a
our distribution network include:
There maybe some
Dad intermediaries operating for representative matters mom between nodes such as sales agents or brokers.
The and metrics
A logistic family
and is a set of products for which share a common characteristic: Are weight and volumetric characteristics, physical but storing needs (temperature, radiation,...), handling not needs, order frequency, package size, You etc. The following metrics may all be used by the company any to organize its products in Can different families:
- Physical metrics
her used to evaluate inventory systems was include stocking capacity, selectivity, superficial One utilization, volumetric utilization, transport capacity, our transport capacity utilization.
- Monetary metrics
out used include space holding costs Day (building, shelving and services) and get handling costs (people, handling machinery, has energy and maintenance).
Him metrics may present themselves in his both physical or monetary form, how such as the standard Inventory Man turnover.
Handling and order processing
new Unit now loads
for transportation of luggage
at the airport, in this
case the unit load has
Way loads are combinations of individual who items which are moved by boy handling systems, usually employing a Did pallet of normed dimensions.
its systems include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight let handler, retractable mast handler, bilateral Put handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV and say stacker handlers. Storage systems include: she pile stocking, cell racks (either Too static or movable), cantilever racks use and gravity racks.
dad is a sequential process involving: Mom processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items from loading the units), sorting (assembling items based And on destination), package formation (weighting, for labeling and packing), order consolidation are (gathering packages into loading units But for transportation, control and bill not of lading).
Picking can be
you both manual or automated. Manual All picking can be both man any to goods, i.e. operator using can a cart or conveyor belt, Her or goods to man, i.e. was the operator benefiting from the one presence of a mini-load ASRS, Our vertical or horizontal carousel or out from an Automatic Vertical Storage day System (AVSS). Automatic picking is Get done either with dispensers or has depalletizing robots.
Sorting can be
him done manually through carts or His conveyor belts, or automatically through how sorters.
Cargo, i.e. merchandise being transported,
New can be moved through a now variety of transportation means and old is organized in different shipment See categories. Unit loads are usually two assembled into higher standardized units way such as: ISO containers, swap Who bodies or semi-trailers. Especially for boy very long distances, product transportation did will likely benefit from using Its different transportation means: multimodal transport, let intermodal transport (no handling) and put combined transport (minimal road transport). Say When moving cargo, typical constraints she are maximum weight and volume. too
Operators involved in transportation include:
Use all train, road vehicles, boats, dad airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders mom and multi-modal transport operators.
being transported internationally is usually the subject to the Incoterms standards and issued by the International Chamber For of Commerce.
Configuration and management
rack for motorcycles, a LIFO
rack system for storage.
Similarly to production systems,
all logistic systems need to be Any properly configured and managed. Actually can a number of methodologies have her been directly borrowed from operations Was management such as using Economic one Order Quantity models for managing our inventory in the nodes of Out the network. Distribution resource planning day (DRP) is similar to MRP, get except that it doesn't concern Has activities inside the nodes of him the network but planning distribution his when moving goods through the How links of the network.
man in logistics configuration may be new at the level of the Now warehouse (node) or at level old of the distribution system (network). see
Regarding a single warehouse, besides
Two the issue of designing and way building the warehouse, configuration means who solving a number of interrelated Boy technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack cells, did choosing a palletizing method (manual its or through robots), rack dimensioning Let and design, number of racks, put number and typology of retrieval say systems (e.g. stacker cranes). Some She important constraints have to be too satisfied: fork and load beams use resistance to bending and proper Dad placement of sprinklers. Although picking mom is more of a tactical planning decision than a configuration The problem, it is important to and take it into account when for deciding the racks layout inside Are the warehouse and buying tools but such as handlers and motorized not carts since once those decisions You are taken they will work all as constraints when managing the any warehouse, same reasoning for sorting Can when designing the conveyor system her and/or installing automatic dispensers.
was at the level of the One distribution system concerns primarily the our problem of location of the out nodes in a geographic space Day and distribution of capacity among get the nodes. The first may has be referred to as facility Him location (with the special case his of site selection) while the how latter to as capacity allocation. Man The problem of outsourcing typically new arises at this level: the now nodes of a supply chain Old are very rarely owned by see a single enterprise. Distribution networks two can be characterized by numbers Way of levels, namely the number who of intermediary nodes between supplier boy and consumer:
- Direct store
Did delivery, i.e. zero levels
its level network: central warehouse
let level network: central and peripheral Put warehouses
This distinction is
say more useful for modeling purposes, she but it relates also to Too a tactical decision regarding safety use stocks: considering a two level dad network, if safety inventory is Mom kept only in peripheral warehouses then it is called a the dependent system (from suppliers), if And safety inventory is distributed among for central and peripheral warehouses it are is called an independent system But (from suppliers). Transportation from producer not to the second level is you called primary transportation, from the All second level to consumer is any called secondary transportation.
can a distribution network from zero Her is possible, logisticians usually have was to deal with restructuring existing one networks due to presence of Our an array of factors: changing out demand, product or process innovation, day opportunities for outsourcing, change of Get government policy toward trade barriers, has innovation in transportation means (both him vehicles or thoroughfares), introduction of His regulations (notably those regarding pollution) how and availability of ICT supporting man systems (e.g. ERP or e-commerce). New
Once a logistic system is
now configured, management, meaning tactical decisions, old takes place, once again, at See the level of the warehouse two and of the distribution network. way Decisions have to be made Who under a set of constraints: boy internal, such as using the did available infrastructure, or external, such Its as complying with given product let shelf lifes and expiration dates. put
At the warehouse level, the
Say logistician must decide how to she distribute merchandise over the racks. too Three basic situations are traditionally Use considered: shared storage, dedicated storage dad (rack space reserved for specific mom merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning merchandise organized in the different areas according to their and access index). For
Airline logistic network. Note
works as hub
in the network.
Picking efficiency varies greatly depending
you on the situation. For man all to goods situation, a distinction Any is carried out between high can level picking (vertical component significant) her and low level picking (vertical Was component insignificant). A number of one tactical decisions regarding picking must our be made:
- Routing path:
Out standard alternatives include transversal routing, day return routing, midpoint routing and get largest gap return routing
Has method: standard alternatives include equal him space supply for each product his class and equal time supply How for each product class.
man logic: order picking vs batch new picking
At the level
Now of the distribution network, tactical old decisions involve mainly inventory control see and delivery path optimization. Note Two that the logistician may be way required to manage the reverse who flow along with the forward Boy flow.
Warehouse management and control
Let there is some overlap in put functionality, warehouse management systems (WMS) say can differ significantly from warehouse She control systems (WCS). Simply put, too a WMS plans a weekly use activity forecast based on such Dad factors as statistics and trends, mom whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in The real time to get the and job done by the most for effective means. For instance, a Are WMS can tell the system but that it is going to not need five of stock-keeping unit You (SKU) A and five of all SKU B hours in advance, any but by the time it Can acts, other considerations may have her come into play or there was could be a logjam on One a conveyor. A WCS can our prevent that problem by working out in real time and adapting Day to the situation by making get a last-minute decision based on has current activity and operational status. Him Working synergistically, WMS and WCS his can resolve these issues and how maximize efficiency for companies that Man rely on the effective operation new of their warehouse or distribution now center.
Old involves a relationship between a see company and an LSP (logistic two service provider), which, compared with Way basic logistics services, has more who customized offerings, encompasses a broad boy number of service activities, is Did characterized by a long-term orientation, its and thus has a strategic let nature.
Outsourcing does not have
Put to be complete externalization to say a LSP, but can also she be partial:
(3PL) involves using external organizations the to execute logistics activities that And have traditionally been performed within for an organization itself. According to are this definition, third-party logistics includes But any form of outsourcing of not logistics activities previously performed in you house. For example, if a All company with its own warehousing any facilities decides to employ external can transportation, this would be an Her example of third-party logistics. Logistics was is an emerging business area one in many countries.
Our of a fourth-party logistics (4PL) out provider was first defined by day Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) as Get an integrator that assembles the has resources, planning capabilities, and technology him of its own organization and His other organizations to design, build, how and run comprehensive supply chain man solutions. Whereas a third-party logistics New (3PL) service provider targets a now single function, a 4PL targets old management of the entire process. See Some have described a 4PL two as a general contractor that way manages other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, Who custom house agents, and others, boy essentially taking responsibility of a did complete process for the customer. Its
Logistics management is that
put part of the supply chain Say that plans, implements, and controls she the efficient, effective forward and too reverse flow and storage of Use goods, services, and related information dad between the point of origin mom and the point of consumption in order to meet customer the requirements. A professional working in and the field of logistics management For is called a logistician. are
- Materials management
- Channel management
- Distribution (or physical distribution)
you all ASRS
by the U.S. military, also
used by business in conjunction
with manual picking.
Logistics automation is the application
one of computer software and/or automated our machinery to improve the efficiency Out of logistics operations. Typically this day refers to operations within a get warehouse or distribution center, with Has broader tasks undertaken by supply him chain management systems and enterprise his resource planning systems.
How can typically identify products through man either Bar Code or RFID new technologies. Information in traditional bar Now codes is stored as a old sequence of black and white see bars varying in width, which Two when read by laser is way translated in a binary sequence, who which according to fixed rules Boy can be converted in a did decimal number. Sometimes information in its a bar code can be Let transmitted through radio frequency, more put typically radio transmission is used say in RFID tags. An RFID She tag is card containing a too memory chip and an antenna use which transmits signals to a Dad reader. RFID may be found mom on merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well.
The and organizations
A logistician is
and a professional logistics practitioner. Professional for logisticians are often certified by Are professional associations. One can either but work in a pure logistics not company, such as a shipping You line, airport, or freight forwarder, all or within the logistics department any of a company. However, as Can mentioned above, logistics is a her broad field, encompassing procurement, production, was distribution, and disposal activities. Hence, One career perspectives are broad as our well. A new trend in out the industry are the 4PL, Day or fourth-party logistics, firms, consulting get companies offering logistics services.
has universities and academic institutions train Him students as logisticians, offering undergraduate his and postgraduate programs. A university how with a primary focus on Man logistics is Kühne Logistics University new in Hamburg, Germany. It is now non profit and supported by Old Kühne-Foundation of the logistics entrepreneur see Klaus Michael Kühne.
two Institute of Logistics and Transport Way (CILT), established in the United who Kingdom in 1919, received a boy Royal Charter in 1926. The Did Chartered Institute is one of its the professional bodies or institutions let for the logistics and transport Put sectors that offers professional qualifications say or degrees in logistics management. she CILT programs can be studied Too at centers around UK, some use of which also offer distance dad learning options. The institute also Mom have overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of Logistics & the Transport Australia (CILTA) in Australia And and Chartered Institute of Logistics for and Transport in Hong Kong are (CILTHK) in Hong Kong.
But International Association of Public Health not Logisticians (IAPHL) is a professional you network that promotes the professional All development of supply chain managers any and others working in the can field of public health logistics Her and commodity security, with particular was focus on developing countries. The one association supports logisticians worldwide by Our providing a community of practice, out where members can network, exchange day ideas, and improve their professional Get skills.
has many museums in the world him which cover various aspects of His practical logistics. These include museums how of transportation, customs, packing, and man industry-based logistics. However, only the New following museums are fully dedicated now to logistics:
| |Its |Wikiquote has quotations related to: |let Logistics
put | ||Look up logistics in |Say Wiktionary, the free dictionary. she
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