But is the management of the not flow of goods between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet some requirements, of can customers or corporations. The resources Her managed in logistics can include was physical items, such as food, one materials, animals, equipment and liquids, Our as well as abstract items, out such as time, information, particles, day and energy. The logistics of Get physical items usually involves the has integration of information flow, material him handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, His warehousing, and often security. The how complexity of logistics can be man modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized New by dedicated simulation software. The now minimization of the use of old resources is a common motivation See in logistics for import and two export. did Its Logistics Specialist
in a storeroom aboard the
aircraft carrier USS George H.W.
, where inventorying means making
a report on stock availability.
Notice how every stock keeping
has an individual code
and a code corresponding to
a specific subclass from a
Origins and definition
The prevalent view is that
him the term logistics comes from his the late 19th century: from How French logistique (loger means to man lodge). Others attribute a Greek new origin to the word: λόγος, Now meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, old meaning accountant or responsible for see counting.
The Oxford English Dictionary
Two defines logistics as "the branch way of military science relating to who procuring, maintaining and transporting material, Boy personnel and facilities." However, the did New Oxford American Dictionary defines its logistics as "the detailed coordination Let of a complex operation involving put many people, facilities, or supplies," say and the Oxford Dictionary on-line She defines it as "the detailed too organization and implementation of a use complex operation." As such, logistics Dad is commonly seen as a mom branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine The systems."
According to the Council
and of Logistics Management, logistics includes for the integrated planning, control, realization, Are and monitoring of all internal but and network-wide material, part, and not product flow, including the necessary You information flow, industrial and trading all companies along the complete value-added any chain (and product life cycle) Can for the purpose of conforming her to customer requirements.
was the process of planning, implementing, One and controlling the effective and our efficient flow of goods and out services from the point of Day origin to the point of get consumption.
Academics and practitioners traditionally
has refer to the terms operations Him or production management when referring his to physical transformations taking place how in a single business location Man (factory, restaurant or even bank new clerking) and reserve the term now logistics for activities related to Old distribution, that is, moving products see on the territory. Managing a two distribution center is seen, therefore, Way as pertaining to the realm who of logistics since, while in boy theory the products made by Did a factory are ready for its consumption they still need to let be moved along the distribution Put network according to some logic, say and the distribution center aggregates she and processes orders coming from Too different areas of the territory. use That being said, from a dad modeling perspective, there are similarities Mom between operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid the professionals, with for ex. "Director And of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" for working on similar problems. Furthermore, are the term supply chain management But originally refers to, among other not issues, having a global vision you in of both production and All logistics from point of origin any to point of production. All can these terms may suffer from Her semantic change as a side was effect of advertising.
Inbound logistics is one of
Our the primary processes of logistics, out concentrating on purchasing and arranging day the inbound movement of materials, Get parts, and/or finished inventory from has suppliers to manufacturing or assembly him plants, warehouses, or retail stores. His Outbound logistics is the process how related to the storage and man movement of the final product New and the related information flows now from the end of the old production line to the end See user.
two services performed by logisticians, the way main fields of logistics can Who be broken down as follows: boy
- Procurement logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Green logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
- Asset Control Logistics
- POS Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
too logistics consists of activities such Use as market research, requirements planning, dad make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, mom and order controlling. The targets in procurement logistics might be the contradictory: maximizing efficiency by concentrating and on core competences, outsourcing while For maintaining the autonomy of the are company, or minimizing procurement costs but while maximizing security within the Not supply process.
Distribution logistics has,
you as main tasks, the delivery all of the finished products to Any the customer. It consists of can order processing, warehousing, and transportation. her Distribution logistics is necessary because Was the time, place, and quantity one of production differs with the our time, place, and quantity of Out consumption.
Disposal logistics has as
day its main function to reduce get logistics cost(s) and enhance service(s) Has related to the disposal of him waste produced during the operation his of a business.
How denotes all those operations related man to the reuse of products new and materials. The reverse logistics Now process includes the management and old the sale of surpluses, as see well as products being returned Two to vendors from buyers. Reverse way logistics stands for all operations who related to the reuse of Boy products and materials. It is did "the process of planning, implementing, its and controlling the efficient, cost Let effective flow of raw materials, put in-process inventory, finished goods and say related information from the point She of consumption to the point too of origin for the purpose use of recapturing value or proper Dad disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics mom is the process of moving goods from their typical final The destination for the purpose of and capturing value, or proper disposal. for The opposite of reverse logistics Are is forward logistics.
but describes all attempts to measure not and minimize the ecological impact You of logistics activities. This includes all all activities of the forward any and reverse flows. This can Can be achieved through intermodal freight her transport, path optimization, vehicle saturation was and city logistics.
One (see also Logistic engineering) combines our both business logistics and military out logistics since it is concerned Day with highly complicated technological systems get for which Reliability, Availability and has Maintainability are essential, ex: weapon Him systems and military supercomputers.
his Control Logistics: companies in the how retail channels, both organized retailers Man and suppliers, often deploy assets new required for the display, preservation, now promotion of their products. Some Old examples are refrigerators, stands, display see monitors, seasonal equipment, poster stands two & frames. Way
A forklift truck loads
a pallet of humanitarian aid
to Pakistan on board a
C-17 aircraft, following devastating floods
in the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is
Put a term used by the say logistics, supply chain, and manufacturing she industries to denote specific time-critical Too modes of transport used to use move goods or objects rapidly dad in the event of an Mom emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services could be the a production delay or anticipated And production delay, or an urgent for need for specialized equipment to are prevent events such as aircraft But being grounded (also known as not "aircraft on ground"—AOG), ships being you delayed, or telecommunications failure. Emergency All logistics services are typically sourced any from a specialist provider.
can term production logistics describes logistic Her processes within a value adding was system (ex:factory or a mine). one Production logistics aims to ensure Our that each machine and workstation out receives the right product in day the right quantity and quality Get at the right time. The has concern is not the transportation him itself, but to streamline and His control the flow through value-adding how processes and to eliminate non–value-adding man processes. Production logistics can operate New in existing as well as now new plants. Manufacturing in an old existing plant is a constantly See changing process. Machines are exchanged two and new ones added, which way gives the opportunity to improve Who the production logistics system accordingly. boy Production logistics provides the means did to achieve customer response and Its capital efficiency.or
Production logistics becomes
let more important with decreasing batch put sizes. In many industries (e.g. Say mobile phones), the short-term goal she is a batch size of too one, allowing even a single Use customer's demand to be fulfilled dad efficiently. Track and tracing, which mom is an essential part of production logistics due to product the safety and reliability issues, is and also gaining importance, especially in For the automotive and medical industries. are
Punjab Regiment uses mules for
carrying cargo during WWII. Animals
have been used for logistic
purposes by different people throughout
history, the Roman army in
particular preferred mules over donkeys
for their moving capacity.
In military science, maintaining
our one's supply lines while disrupting Out those of the enemy is day a crucial—some would say the get most crucial—element of military strategy, Has since an armed force without him resources and transportation is defenseless. his The defeat of the British How in the American War of man Independence and the defeat of new the Axis in the African Now theater of World War II old are attributed by some scholars see to logistical failures. The historical Two leaders Hannibal Barca, Alexander the way Great, and the Duke of who Wellington are considered to have Boy been logistical geniuses.
did a significant need for logistics its solutions and so have developed Let advanced implementations. Integrated Logistics Support put (ILS) is a discipline used say in military industries to ensure She an easily supportable system with too a robust customer service (logistic) use concept at the lowest cost Dad and in line with (often mom high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as defined for The the project.
In military logistics,
and logistics officers manage how and for when to move resources to Are the places they are needed. but
Supply chain management in military
not logistics often deals with a You number of variables in predicting all cost, deterioration, consumption, and future any demand. The United States Armed Can Forces' categorical supply classification was her developed in such a way was that categories of supply with One similar consumption variables are grouped our together for planning purposes. For out instance, peacetime consumption of ammunition Day and fuel will be considerably get lower than wartime consumption of has these items, whereas other classes Him of supply such as subsistence his and clothing have a relatively how consistent consumption rate regardless of Man war or peace.
new of supply have a linear now demand relationship: as more troops Old are added, more supply items see are needed; or as more two equipment is used, more fuel Way and ammunition are consumed. Other who classes of supply must consider boy a third variable besides usage Did and quantity: time. As equipment its ages, more and more repair let parts are needed over time, Put even when usage and quantity say stays consistent. By recording and she analyzing these trends over time Too and applying them to future use scenarios, the US Armed Forces dad can accurately supply troops with Mom the items necessary at the precise moment they are needed. the History has shown that good And logistical planning creates a lean for and efficient fighting force. The are lack thereof can lead to But a clunky, slow, and ill-equipped not force with too much or you too little supply.
stacking a logistics provider's
warehouse of goods on pallets.
One definition of
was business logistics speaks of "having one the right item in the Our right quantity at the right out time at the right place day for the right price in Get the right condition to the has right customer". Business logistics incorporates him all industry sectors and aims His to manage the fruition of how project life cycles, supply chains, man and resultant efficiencies.
New "business logistics" has evolved since now the 1960s due to the old increasing complexity of supplying businesses See with materials and shipping out two products in an increasingly globalized way supply chain, leading to a Who call for professionals called "supply boy chain logisticians".
In business, logistics
did may have either an internal Its focus (inbound logistics) or an let external focus (outbound logistics), covering put the flow and storage of Say materials from point of origin she to point of consumption (see too supply-chain management). The main functions Use of a qualified logistician include dad inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, mom consultation, and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians the combine a professional knowledge of and each of these functions to For coordinate resources in an organization. are
There are two fundamentally different
but forms of logistics: one optimizes Not a steady flow of material you through a network of transport all links and storage nodes, while Any the other coordinates a sequence can of resources to carry out her some project (ex:restructuring a warehouse). Was
Nodes of a distribution network
The nodes of a distribution
our network include :
There maybe some intermediaries
Dad operating for representative matters between mom nodes such as sales agents or brokers.
Logistic families and
A logistic family is
and a set of products which for share a common characteristic: weight Are and volumetric characteristics, physical storing but needs (temperature, radiation,...), handling needs, not order frequency, package size, etc. You The following metrics may be all used by the company to any organize its products in different Can families:
- Physical metrics used
her to evaluate inventory systems include was stocking capacity, selectivity, superficial utilization, One volumetric utilization, transport capacity, transport our capacity utilization.
- Monetary metrics used
out include space holding costs (building, Day shelving and services) and handling get costs (people, handling machinery, energy has and maintenance).
Him may present themselves in both his physical or monetary form, such how as the standard Inventory turnover. Man
Handling and order processing
new Unit loads now
for transportation of luggage at
the airport, in this case
the unit load has protective
Way are combinations of individual items who which are moved by handling boy systems, usually employing a pallet Did of normed dimensions.
its include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, let retractable mast handler, bilateral handlers, Put trilateral handlers, AGV and stacker say handlers. Storage systems include: pile she stocking, cell racks (either static Too or movable), cantilever racks and use gravity racks.
Order processing is
dad a sequential process involving: processing Mom withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items from loading units), the sorting (assembling items based on And destination), package formation (weighting, labeling for and packing), order consolidation (gathering are packages into loading units for But transportation, control and bill of not lading).
Picking can be both
you manual or automated. Manual picking All can be both man to any goods, i.e. operator using a can cart or conveyor belt, or Her goods to man, i.e. the was operator benefiting from the presence one of a mini-load ASRS, vertical Our or horizontal carousel or from out an Automatic Vertical Storage System day (AVSS). Automatic picking is done Get either with dispensers or depalletizing has robots.
Sorting can be done
him manually through carts or conveyor His belts, or automatically through sorters. how
man i.e. merchandise being transported, can New be moved through a variety now of transportation means and is old organized in different shipment categories. See Unit loads are usually assembled two into higher standardized units such way as: ISO containers, swap bodies Who or semi-trailers. Especially for very boy long distances, product transportation will did likely benefit from using different Its transportation means: multimodal transport, intermodal let transport (no handling) and combined put transport (minimal road transport). When Say moving cargo, typical constraints are she maximum weight and volume.
too involved in transportation include: all Use train, road vehicles, boats, airplanes dad companies, couriers, freight forwarders and mom multi-modal transport operators.
transported internationally is usually subject the to the Incoterms standards issued and by the International Chamber of For Commerce.
Configuration and management
for motorcycles, a LIFO
system for storage.
Similarly to production systems, logistic
all systems need to be properly Any configured and managed. Actually a can number of methodologies have been her directly borrowed from operations management Was such as using Economic Order one Quantity models for managing inventory our in the nodes of the Out network. Distribution resource planning (DRP) day is similar to MRP, except get that it doesn't concern activities Has inside the nodes of the him network but planning distribution when his moving goods through the links How of the network.
man logistics configuration may be at new the level of the warehouse Now (node) or at level of old the distribution system (network).
see a single warehouse, besides the Two issue of designing and building way the warehouse, configuration means solving who a number of interrelated technical-economic Boy problems: dimensioning rack cells, choosing did a palletizing method (manual or its through robots), rack dimensioning and Let design, number of racks, number put and typology of retrieval systems say (e.g. stacker cranes). Some important She constraints have to be satisfied: too fork and load beams resistance use to bending and proper placement Dad of sprinklers. Although picking is mom more of a tactical planning decision than a configuration problem, The it is important to take and it into account when deciding for the racks layout inside the Are warehouse and buying tools such but as handlers and motorized carts not since once those decisions are You taken they will work as all constraints when managing the warehouse, any same reasoning for sorting when Can designing the conveyor system and/or her installing automatic dispensers.
was the level of the distribution One system concerns primarily the problem our of location of the nodes out in a geographic space and Day distribution of capacity among the get nodes. The first may be has referred to as facility location Him (with the special case of his site selection) while the latter how to as capacity allocation. The Man problem of outsourcing typically arises new at this level: the nodes now of a supply chain are Old very rarely owned by a see single enterprise. Distribution networks can two be characterized by numbers of Way levels, namely the number of who intermediary nodes between supplier and boy consumer:
- Direct store delivery,
Did i.e. zero levels
- One level
its network: central warehouse
- Two level
let network: central and peripheral warehouses Put
This distinction is more
say useful for modeling purposes, but she it relates also to a Too tactical decision regarding safety stocks: use considering a two level network, dad if safety inventory is kept Mom only in peripheral warehouses then it is called a dependent the system (from suppliers), if safety And inventory is distributed among central for and peripheral warehouses it is are called an independent system (from But suppliers). Transportation from producer to not the second level is called you primary transportation, from the second All level to consumer is called any secondary transportation.
Although configuring a
can distribution network from zero is Her possible, logisticians usually have to was deal with restructuring existing networks one due to presence of an Our array of factors: changing demand, out product or process innovation, opportunities day for outsourcing, change of government Get policy toward trade barriers, innovation has in transportation means (both vehicles him or thoroughfares), introduction of regulations His (notably those regarding pollution) and how availability of ICT supporting systems man (e.g. ERP or e-commerce).
New a logistic system is configured, now management, meaning tactical decisions, takes old place, once again, at the See level of the warehouse and two of the distribution network. Decisions way have to be made under Who a set of constraints: internal, boy such as using the available did infrastructure, or external, such as Its complying with given product shelf let lifes and expiration dates.
put the warehouse level, the logistician Say must decide how to distribute she merchandise over the racks. Three too basic situations are traditionally considered: Use shared storage, dedicated storage (rack dad space reserved for specific merchandise) mom and class based storage (class meaning merchandise organized in different the areas according to their access and index). For
Airline logistic network. Note how
works as hub
Not efficiency varies greatly depending on you the situation. For man to all goods situation, a distinction is Any carried out between high level can picking (vertical component significant) and her low level picking (vertical component Was insignificant). A number of tactical one decisions regarding picking must be our made:
- Routing path: standard
Out alternatives include transversal routing, return day routing, midpoint routing and largest get gap return routing
- Replenishment method:
Has standard alternatives include equal space him supply for each product class his and equal time supply for How each product class.
- Picking logic:
man order picking vs batch picking new
At the level of
Now the distribution network, tactical decisions old involve mainly inventory control and see delivery path optimization. Note that Two the logistician may be required way to manage the reverse flow who along with the forward flow. Boy
Warehouse management and control
Let is some overlap in functionality, put warehouse management systems (WMS) can say differ significantly from warehouse control She systems (WCS). Simply put, a too WMS plans a weekly activity use forecast based on such factors Dad as statistics and trends, whereas mom a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real The time to get the job and done by the most effective for means. For instance, a WMS Are can tell the system that but it is going to need not five of stock-keeping unit (SKU) You A and five of SKU all B hours in advance, but any by the time it acts, Can other considerations may have come her into play or there could was be a logjam on a One conveyor. A WCS can prevent our that problem by working in out real time and adapting to Day the situation by making a get last-minute decision based on current has activity and operational status. Working Him synergistically, WMS and WCS can his resolve these issues and maximize how efficiency for companies that rely Man on the effective operation of new their warehouse or distribution center. now
Logistics outsourcing involves
Old a relationship between a company see and an LSP (logistic service two provider), which, compared with basic Way logistics services, has more customized who offerings, encompasses a broad number boy of service activities, is characterized Did by a long-term orientation, and its thus has a strategic nature. let
Outsourcing does not have to
Put be complete externalization to a say LSP, but can also be she partial:
Third-party logistics (3PL)
involves using external organizations to the execute logistics activities that have And traditionally been performed within an for organization itself. According to this are definition, third-party logistics includes any But form of outsourcing of logistics not activities previously performed in house. you For example, if a company All with its own warehousing facilities any decides to employ external transportation, can this would be an example Her of third-party logistics. Logistics is was an emerging business area in one many countries.
The concept of
Our a fourth-party logistics (4PL) provider out was first defined by Andersen day Consulting (now Accenture) as an Get integrator that assembles the resources, has planning capabilities, and technology of him its own organization and other His organizations to design, build, and how run comprehensive supply chain solutions. man Whereas a third-party logistics (3PL) New service provider targets a single now function, a 4PL targets management old of the entire process. Some See have described a 4PL as two a general contractor that manages way other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom Who house agents, and others, essentially boy taking responsibility of a complete did process for the customer.
Its management let
Logistics management is that part
put of the supply chain that Say plans, implements, and controls the she efficient, effective forward and reverse too flow and storage of goods, Use services, and related information between dad the point of origin and mom the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. the A professional working in the and field of logistics management is For called a logistician.
- Materials management
- Channel management
but (or physical distribution)
- Supply-chain management
the U.S. military, also used
by business in conjunction with
Was automation is the application of one computer software and/or automated machinery our to improve the efficiency of Out logistics operations. Typically this refers day to operations within a warehouse get or distribution center, with broader Has tasks undertaken by supply chain him management systems and enterprise resource his planning systems.
Industrial machinery can
How typically identify products through either man Bar Code or RFID technologies. new Information in traditional bar codes Now is stored as a sequence old of black and white bars see varying in width, which when Two read by laser is translated way in a binary sequence, which who according to fixed rules can Boy be converted in a decimal did number. Sometimes information in a its bar code can be transmitted Let through radio frequency, more typically put radio transmission is used in say RFID tags. An RFID tag She is card containing a memory too chip and an antenna which use transmits signals to a reader. Dad RFID may be found on mom merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well.
Logistics: profession and
A logistician is a
and professional logistics practitioner. Professional logisticians for are often certified by professional Are associations. One can either work but in a pure logistics company, not such as a shipping line, You airport, or freight forwarder, or all within the logistics department of any a company. However, as mentioned Can above, logistics is a broad her field, encompassing procurement, production, distribution, was and disposal activities. Hence, career One perspectives are broad as well. our A new trend in the out industry are the 4PL, or Day fourth-party logistics, firms, consulting companies get offering logistics services.
has and academic institutions train students Him as logisticians, offering undergraduate and his postgraduate programs. A university with how a primary focus on logistics Man is Kühne Logistics University in new Hamburg, Germany. It is non now profit and supported by Kühne-Foundation Old of the logistics entrepreneur Klaus see Michael Kühne.
The Chartered Institute
two of Logistics and Transport (CILT), Way established in the United Kingdom who in 1919, received a Royal boy Charter in 1926. The Chartered Did Institute is one of the its professional bodies or institutions for let the logistics and transport sectors Put that offers professional qualifications or say degrees in logistics management. CILT she programs can be studied at Too centers around UK, some of use which also offer distance learning dad options. The institute also have Mom overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport the Australia (CILTA) in Australia and And Chartered Institute of Logistics and for Transport in Hong Kong (CILTHK) are in Hong Kong.
But Association of Public Health Logisticians not (IAPHL) is a professional network you that promotes the professional development All of supply chain managers and any others working in the field can of public health logistics and Her commodity security, with particular focus was on developing countries. The association one supports logisticians worldwide by providing Our a community of practice, where out members can network, exchange ideas, day and improve their professional skills. Get
There are many
has museums in the world which him cover various aspects of practical His logistics. These include museums of how transportation, customs, packing, and industry-based man logistics. However, only the following New museums are fully dedicated to now logistics:
| ||Wikiquote |Its has quotations related to: Logistics let
| |put |Look up logistics in Wiktionary, |Say the free dictionary. she the
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