Now generally the detailed organization and old implementation of a complex operation. see In a general business sense, Two logistics is the management of way the flow of things between who the point of origin and Boy the point of consumption in did order to meet requirements of its customers or corporations. The resources Let managed in logistics can include put physical items such as food, say materials, animals, equipment, and liquids; She as well as abstract items, too such as time and information. use The logistics of physical items Dad usually involves the integration of mom information flow, material handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, warehousing, and The often security.
In military science,
and logistics is concerned with maintaining for army supply lines while disrupting Are those of the enemy, since but an armed force without resources not and transportation is defenseless. Military You logistics was already practiced in all the ancient world and as any modern military have a significant Can need for logistics solutions, advanced her implementations have been developed. In was military logistics, logistics officers manage One how and when to move our resources to the places they out are needed.
Logistics management is
Day the part of supply chain get management that plans, implements, and has controls the efficient, effective forward, Him and reverse flow and storage his of goods, services, and related how information between the point of Man origin and the point of new consumption in order to meet now customer's requirements. The complexity of Old logistics can be modeled, analyzed, see visualized, and optimized by dedicated two simulation software. The minimization of Way the use of resources is who a common motivation in all boy logistics fields. A professional working Did in the field of logistics its management is called a logistician. let use Logistics Specialist
inventories supplies in
a storeroom aboard the aircraft
carrier USS George H.W. Bush
where inventorying means making a
report on stock availability. Notice
how every stock keeping unit
has an individual code and
a code corresponding to a
specific subclass from a given
now and definition
The prevalent view
old is that the term logistics See comes from the late 19th two century: from French logistique (loger way means to lodge) and was Who first used by Baron de boy Jomini. Others attribute a Greek did origin to the word: λόγος, Its meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, let meaning accountant or responsible for put counting.
The Oxford English Dictionary
Say defines logistics as "the branch she of military science relating to too procuring, maintaining and transporting material, Use personnel and facilities". However, the dad New Oxford American Dictionary defines mom logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving the many people, facilities, or supplies," and and the Oxford Dictionary on-line For defines it as "the detailed are organization and implementation of a but complex operation". As such, logistics Not is commonly seen as a you branch of engineering that creates all "people systems" rather than "machine Any systems."
According to the Council
can of Supply Chain Management Professionals her (previously the Council of Logistics Was Management ) logistics is the one process of planning, implementing and our controlling procedures for the efficient Out and effective transportation and storage day of goods including services and get related information from the point Has of origin to the point him of consumption for the purpose his of conforming to customer requirements How and includes inbound, outbound, internal man and external movements.
new and practitioners traditionally refer to Now the terms operations or production old management when referring to physical see transformations taking place in a Two single business location (factory, restaurant way or even bank clerking) and who reserve the term logistics for Boy activities related to distribution, that did is, moving products on the its territory. Managing a distribution center Let is seen, therefore, as pertaining put to the realm of logistics say since, while in theory the She products made by a factory too are ready for consumption they use still need to be moved Dad along the distribution network according mom to some logic, and the distribution center aggregates and processes The orders coming from different areas and of the territory. That being for said, from a modeling perspective, Are there are similarities between operations but management and logistics, and companies not sometimes use hybrid professionals, with You for ex. "Director of Operations" all or "Logistics Officer" working on any similar problems. Furthermore, the term Can supply chain management originally refers her to, among other issues, having was an integrated vision in of One both production and logistics from our point of origin to point out of production. All these terms Day may suffer from semantic change get as a side effect of has advertising.
Logistics activities and fields
A basic distinction in the
his nature of logistics activities is how between inbound and outbound logistics. Man
Inbound logistics is one of
new the primary processes of logistics, now concentrating on purchasing and arranging Old the inbound movement of materials, see parts, and/or finished inventory from two suppliers to manufacturing or assembly Way plants, warehouses, or retail stores. who
Outbound logistics is the process
boy related to the storage and Did movement of the final product its and the related information flows let from the end of the Put production line to the end say user.
Given the services performed
she by logisticians, the main fields Too of logistics can be broken use down as follows:
- Procurement logistics
- Distribution logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Green logistics
- Global logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
- Asset Control Logistics
- POS Material
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
Procurement logistics consists
But of activities such as market not research, requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, you supplier management, ordering, and order All controlling. The targets in procurement any logistics might be contradictory: maximizing can efficiency by concentrating on core Her competences, outsourcing while maintaining the was autonomy of the company, or one minimizing procurement costs while maximizing Our security within the supply process. out
Distribution logistics has, as main
day tasks, the delivery of the Get finished products to the customer. has It consists of order processing, him warehousing, and transportation. Distribution logistics His is necessary because the time, how place, and quantity of production man differs with the time, place, New and quantity of consumption.
now logistics has as its main old function to reduce logistics cost(s) See and enhance service(s) related to two the disposal of waste produced way during the operation of a Who business.
Reverse logistics denotes all
boy those operations related to the did reuse of products and materials. Its The reverse logistics process includes let the management and the sale put of surpluses, as well as Say products being returned to vendors she from buyers. Reverse logistics stands too for all operations related to Use the reuse of products and dad materials. It is "the process mom of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow the of raw materials, in-process inventory, and finished goods and related information For from the point of consumption are to the point of origin but for the purpose of recapturing Not value or proper disposal. More you precisely, reverse logistics is the all process of moving goods from Any their typical final destination for can the purpose of capturing value, her or proper disposal. The opposite Was of reverse logistics is forward one logistics."
Green Logistics describes all
our attempts to measure and minimize Out the ecological impact of logistics day activities. This includes all activities get of the forward and reverse Has flows. This can be achieved him through intermodal freight transport, path his optimization, vehicle saturation and city How logistics.
RAM Logistics (see also
man Logistic engineering) combines both business new logistics and military logistics since Now it is concerned with highly old complicated technological systems for which see Reliability, Availability and Maintainability are Two essential, ex: weapon systems and way military supercomputers.
Asset Control Logistics:
who companies in the retail channels, Boy both organized retailers and suppliers, did often deploy assets required for its the display, preservation, promotion of Let their products. Some examples are put refrigerators, stands, display monitors, seasonal say equipment, poster stands & frames. She
forklift truck loads a pallet
of humanitarian aid to Pakistan
on board a C-17
following devastating floods
country in 2010.
Emergency logistics (or Humanitarian Logistics)
and is a term used by for the logistics, supply chain, and Are manufacturing industries to denote specific but time-critical modes of transport used not to move goods or objects You rapidly in the event of all an emergency. The reason for any enlisting emergency logistics services could Can be a production delay or her anticipated production delay, or an was urgent need for specialized equipment One to prevent events such as our aircraft being grounded (also known out as "aircraft on ground"—AOG), ships Day being delayed, or telecommunications failure. get Humanitarian logistics involves governments, the has military, aid agencies, donors, non-governmental Him organizations and emergency logistics services his are typically sourced from a how specialist provider.
The term production
Man logistics describes logistic processes within new a value adding system (ex: now factory or a mine). Production Old logistics aims to ensure that see each machine and workstation receives two the right product in the Way right quantity and quality at who the right time. The concern boy is with production, testing, transportation, Did storage and supply. Production logistics its can operate in existing as let well as new plants: since Put manufacturing in an existing plant say is a constantly changing process, she machines are exchanged and new Too ones added, which gives the use opportunity to improve the production dad logistics system accordingly. Production logistics Mom provides the means to achieve customer response and capital efficiency. the Production logistics becomes more important And with decreasing batch sizes. In for many industries (e.g. mobile phones), are the short-term goal is a But batch size of one, allowing not even a single customer's demand you to be fulfilled efficiently. Track All and tracing, which is an any essential part of production logistics can due to product safety and Her reliability issues, is also gaining was importance, especially in the automotive one and medical industries.
uses mules for carrying cargo
during WWII. Animals
have been used for logistic
purposes by different people throughout
history, the Roman army in
particular preferred mules over donkeys
for their moving capacity.
In military science, maintaining
now one's supply lines while disrupting old those of the enemy is See a crucial—some would say the two most crucial—element of military strategy, way since an armed force without Who resources and transportation is defenseless. boy The historical leaders Hannibal, Alexander did the Great, and the Duke Its of Wellington are considered to let have been logistical geniuses: Alexander's put expedition, the longest military campaign Say ever undertaken, benefited consiberably from she his meticulous attention to the too provisioning of his army, Hannibal Use is credited to have "taught dad logistics" to the Romans during mom the Punic Wars and the success of the Anglo-Portuguese the army in the Peninsula War and was the due to the For effectiveness of Wellington's supply system, are despite the numerical disadvantage. The but defeat of the British in Not the American War of Independence you and the defeat of the all Axis in the African theater Any of World War II are can attributed by some scholars to her logistical failures.
Military have a
Was significant need for logistics solutions one and so have developed advanced our implementations. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Out is a discipline used in day military industries to ensure an get easily supportable system with a Has robust customer service (logistic) concept him at the lowest cost and his in line with (often high) How reliability, availability, maintainability, and other man requirements, as defined for the new project.
In military logistics, logistics
Now officers manage how and when old to move resources to the see places they are needed.
Two chain management in military logistics way often deals with a number who of variables in predicting cost, Boy deterioration, consumption, and future demand. did The United States Armed Forces' its categorical supply classification was developed Let in such a way that put categories of supply with similar say consumption variables are grouped together She for planning purposes. For instance, too peacetime consumption of ammunition and use fuel will be considerably lower Dad than wartime consumption of these mom items, whereas other classes of supply such as subsistence and The clothing have a relatively consistent and consumption rate regardless of war for or peace.
Some classes of
Are supply have a linear demand but relationship: as more troops are not added, more supply items are You needed; or as more equipment all is used, more fuel and any ammunition are consumed. Other classes Can of supply must consider a her third variable besides usage and was quantity: time. As equipment ages, One more and more repair parts our are needed over time, even out when usage and quantity stays Day consistent. By recording and analyzing get these trends over time and has applying them to future scenarios, Him the US Armed Forces can his accurately supply troops with the how items necessary at the precise Man moment they are needed. History new has shown that good logistical now planning creates a lean and Old efficient fighting force. The lack see thereof can lead to a two clunky, slow, and ill-equipped force Way with too much or too who little supply.
stacking a logistics provider's warehouse
of goods on pallets.
One definition of business
Put logistics speaks of "having the say right item in the right she quantity at the right time Too at the right place for use the right price in the dad right condition to the right Mom customer". Business logistics incorporates all industry sectors and aims to the manage the fruition of project And life cycles, supply chains, and for resultant efficiencies.
The term "business
are logistics" has evolved since the But 1960s due to the increasing not complexity of supplying businesses with you materials and shipping out products All in an increasingly globalized supply any chain, leading to a call can for professionals called "supply chain Her logisticians".
In business, logistics may
was have either an internal focus one (inbound logistics) or an external Our focus (outbound logistics), covering the out flow and storage of materials day from point of origin to Get point of consumption (see supply-chain has management). The main functions of him a qualified logistician include inventory His management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, how and the organizing and planning man of these activities. Logisticians combine New a professional knowledge of each now of these functions to coordinate old resources in an organization.
See are two fundamentally different forms two of logistics: one optimizes a way steady flow of material through Who a network of transport links boy and storage nodes, while the did other coordinates a sequence of Its resources to carry out some let project (e.g., restructuring a warehouse). put
Nodes of a distribution network
The nodes of a distribution
she network include:
There may be some
his intermediaries operating for representative matters How between nodes such as sales man agents or brokers.
new and metrics
A logistic family
Now is a set of products old which share a common characteristic: see weight and volumetric characteristics, physical Two storing needs (temperature, radiation,...), handling way needs, order frequency, package size, who etc. The following metrics may Boy be used by the company did to organize its products in its different families:
- Physical metrics
Let used to evaluate inventory systems put include stocking capacity, selectivity, superficial say utilization, volumetric utilization, transport capacity, She transport capacity utilization.
- Monetary metrics
too used include space holding costs use (building, shelving and services) and Dad handling costs (people, handling machinery, mom energy and maintenance).
metrics may present themselves in The both physical or monetary form, and such as the standard Inventory for turnover.
Handling and order processing
Are Unit but loads
for transportation of luggage
at the airport, in this
case the unit load has
any loads are combinations of individual Can items which are moved by her handling systems, usually employing a was pallet of normed dimensions.
One systems include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight our handler, retractable mast handler, bilateral out handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV and Day stacker handlers. Storage systems include: get pile stocking, cell racks (either has static or movable), cantilever racks Him and gravity racks.
his is a sequential process involving: how processing withdrawal list, picking (selective Man removal of items from loading new units), sorting (assembling items based now on destination), package formation (weighting, Old labeling and packing), order consolidation see (gathering packages into loading units two for transportation, control and bill Way of lading).
Picking can be
who both manual or automated. Manual boy picking can be both man Did to goods, i.e. operator using its a cart or conveyor belt, let or goods to man, i.e. Put the operator benefiting from the say presence of a mini-load ASRS, she vertical or horizontal carousel or Too from an Automatic Vertical Storage use System (AVSS). Automatic picking is dad done either with dispensers or Mom depalletizing robots.
Sorting can be
done manually through carts or the conveyor belts, or automatically through And sorters.
Cargo, i.e. merchandise being transported,
are can be moved through a But variety of transportation means and not is organized in different shipment you categories. Unit loads are usually All assembled into higher standardized units any such as: ISO containers, swap can bodies or semi-trailers. Especially for Her very long distances, product transportation was will likely benefit from using one different transportation means: multimodal transport, Our intermodal transport (no handling) and out combined transport (minimal road transport). day When moving cargo, typical constraints Get are maximum weight and volume. has
Operators involved in transportation include:
him all train, road vehicles, boats, His airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders how and multi-modal transport operators.
man being transported internationally is usually New subject to the Incoterms standards now issued by the International Chamber old of Commerce.
Configuration and management
rack for motorcycles, a LIFO
rack system for storage.
Similarly to production systems,
boy logistic systems need to be did properly configured and managed. Actually Its a number of methodologies have let been directly borrowed from operations put management such as using Economic Say Order Quantity models for managing she inventory in the nodes of too the network. Distribution resource planning Use (DRP) is similar to MRP, dad except that it doesn't concern mom activities inside the nodes of the network but planning distribution the when moving goods through the and links of the network.
For in logistics configuration may be are at the level of the but warehouse (node) or at level Not of the distribution system (network). you
Regarding a single warehouse, besides
all the issue of designing and Any building the warehouse, configuration means can solving a number of interrelated her technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack cells, Was choosing a palletizing method (manual one or through robots), rack dimensioning our and design, number of racks, Out number and typology of retrieval day systems (e.g. stacker cranes). Some get important constraints have to be Has satisfied: fork and load beams him resistance to bending and proper his placement of sprinklers. Although picking How is more of a tactical man planning decision than a configuration new problem, it is important to Now take it into account when old deciding the racks layout inside see the warehouse and buying tools Two such as handlers and motorized way carts since once those decisions who are taken they will work Boy as constraints when managing the did warehouse, same reasoning for sorting its when designing the conveyor system Let and/or installing automatic dispensers.
put at the level of the say distribution system concerns primarily the She problem of location of the too nodes in a geographic space use and distribution of capacity among Dad the nodes. The first may mom be referred to as facility location (with the special case The of site selection) while the and latter to as capacity allocation. for The problem of outsourcing typically Are arises at this level: the but nodes of a supply chain not are very rarely owned by You a single enterprise. Distribution networks all can be characterized by numbers any of levels, namely the number Can of intermediary nodes between supplier her and consumer:
- Direct store
was delivery, i.e. zero levels
One level network: central warehouse
our level network: central and peripheral out warehouses
This distinction is
Day more useful for modeling purposes, get but it relates also to has a tactical decision regarding safety Him stocks: considering a two level his network, if safety inventory is how kept only in peripheral warehouses Man then it is called a new dependent system (from suppliers), if now safety inventory is distributed among Old central and peripheral warehouses it see is called an independent system two (from suppliers). Transportation from producer Way to the second level is who called primary transportation, from the boy second level to consumer is Did called secondary transportation.
its a distribution network from zero let is possible, logisticians usually have Put to deal with restructuring existing say networks due to presence of she an array of factors: changing Too demand, product or process innovation, use opportunities for outsourcing, change of dad government policy toward trade barriers, Mom innovation in transportation means (both vehicles or thoroughfares), introduction of the regulations (notably those regarding pollution) And and availability of ICT supporting for systems (e.g. ERP or e-commerce). are
Once a logistic system is
But configured, management, meaning tactical decisions, not takes place, once again, at you the level of the warehouse All and of the distribution network. any Decisions have to be made can under a set of constraints: Her internal, such as using the was available infrastructure, or external, such one as complying with given product Our shelf lifes and expiration dates. out
At the warehouse level, the
day logistician must decide how to Get distribute merchandise over the racks. has Three basic situations are traditionally him considered: shared storage, dedicated storage His (rack space reserved for specific how merchandise) and class based storage man (class meaning merchandise organized in New different areas according to their now access index). old
Airline logistic network. Note
works as hub
in the network.
Picking efficiency varies greatly depending
Who on the situation. For man boy to goods situation, a distinction did is carried out between high Its level picking (vertical component significant) let and low level picking (vertical put component insignificant). A number of Say tactical decisions regarding picking must she be made:
- Routing path:
too standard alternatives include transversal routing, Use return routing, midpoint routing and dad largest gap return routing
mom method: standard alternatives include equal space supply for each product the class and equal time supply and for each product class.
For logic: order picking vs batch are picking
At the level
but of the distribution network, tactical Not decisions involve mainly inventory control you and delivery path optimization. Note all that the logistician may be Any required to manage the reverse can flow along with the forward her flow.
Warehouse management and control
our there is some overlap in Out functionality, warehouse management systems (WMS) day can differ significantly from warehouse get control systems (WCS). Simply put, Has a WMS plans a weekly him activity forecast based on such his factors as statistics and trends, How whereas a WCS acts like man a floor supervisor, working in new real time to get the Now job done by the most old effective means. For instance, a see WMS can tell the system Two that it is going to way need five of stock-keeping unit who (SKU) A and five of Boy SKU B hours in advance, did but by the time it its acts, other considerations may have Let come into play or there put could be a logjam on say a conveyor. A WCS can She prevent that problem by working too in real time and adapting use to the situation by making Dad a last-minute decision based on mom current activity and operational status. Working synergistically, WMS and WCS The can resolve these issues and and maximize efficiency for companies that for rely on the effective operation Are of their warehouse or distribution but center.
not involves a relationship between a You company and an LSP (logistic all service provider), which, compared with any basic logistics services, has more Can customized offerings, encompasses a broad her number of service activities, is was characterized by a long-term orientation, One and thus has a strategic our nature.
Outsourcing does not have
out to be complete externalization to Day a LSP, but can also get be partial:
Man (3PL) involves using external organizations new to execute logistics activities that now have traditionally been performed within Old an organization itself. According to see this definition, third-party logistics includes two any form of outsourcing of Way logistics activities previously performed in who house. For example, if a boy company with its own warehousing Did facilities decides to employ external its transportation, this would be an let example of third-party logistics. Logistics Put is an emerging business area say in many countries.
she of a fourth-party logistics (4PL) Too provider was first defined by use Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) as dad an integrator that assembles the Mom resources, planning capabilities, and technology of its own organization and the other organizations to design, build, And and run comprehensive supply chain for solutions. Whereas a third-party logistics are (3PL) service provider targets a But single function, a 4PL targets not management of the entire process. you Some have described a 4PL All as a general contractor that any manages other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, can custom house agents, and others, Her essentially taking responsibility of a was complete process for the customer. one
Horizontal alliances between logistics service
Horizontal business alliances often
out occur between logistics service providers, day i.e., the cooperation between two Get or more logistics companies that has are potentially competing. In a him horizontal alliance, these partners can His benefit twofold. On one hand, how they can "access tangible resources man which are directly exploitable." In New this example extending common transportation now networks, their warehouse infrastructure and old the ability to provide more See complex service packages can be two achieved by combining resources. On way the other hand, partners can Who "access intangible resources, which are boy not directly exploitable." This typically did includes know-how and information and, Its in turn, innovation.
dad automation is the application of mom computer software and/or automated machinery to improve the efficiency of the logistics operations. Typically this refers and to operations within a warehouse For or distribution center, with broader are tasks undertaken by supply chain but management systems and enterprise resource Not planning systems.
Industrial machinery can
you typically identify products through either all Bar Code or RFID technologies. Any Information in traditional bar codes can is stored as a sequence her of black and white bars Was varying in width, which when one read by laser is translated our into a digital sequence, which Out according to fixed rules can day be converted into a decimal get number or other data. Sometimes Has information in a bar code him can be transmitted through radio his frequency, more typically radio transmission How is used in RFID tags. man An RFID tag is card new containing a memory chip and Now an antenna which transmits signals old to a reader. RFID may see be found on merchandise, animals, Two vehicles and people as well. way
Logistics: profession and organizations
who logistician is a professional logistics Boy practitioner. Professional logisticians are often did certified by professional associations. One its can either work in a Let pure logistics company, such as put a shipping line, airport, or say freight forwarder, or within the She logistics department of a company. too However, as mentioned above, logistics use is a broad field, encompassing Dad procurement, production, distribution, and disposal mom activities. Hence, career perspectives are broad as well. A new The trend in the industry are and the 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, for firms, consulting companies offering logistics Are services.
Some universities and academic
but institutions train students as logisticians, not offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. You A university with a primary all focus on logistics is Kühne any Logistics University in Hamburg, Germany. Can It is non profit and her supported by Kühne-Foundation of the was logistics entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne. One
The Chartered Institute of Logistics
our and Transport (CILT), established in out the United Kingdom in 1919, Day received a Royal Charter in get 1926. The Chartered Institute is has one of the professional bodies Him or institutions for the logistics his and transport sectors that offers how professional qualifications or degrees in Man logistics management. CILT programs can new be studied at centers around now UK, some of which also Old offer distance learning options. The see institute also have overseas branches two namely The Chartered Institute of Way Logistics & Transport Australia (CILTA) who in Australia and Chartered Institute boy of Logistics and Transport in Did Hong Kong (CILTHK) in Hong its Kong. In the UK, Logistics let Management programs are conducted by Put many universities and professional bodies say such as CILT. These programs she are generally offered at the Too postgraduate level.
The International Association
use of Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) dad is a professional network that Mom promotes the professional development of supply chain managers and others the working in the field of And public health logistics and commodity for security, with particular focus on are developing countries. The association supports But logisticians worldwide by providing a not community of practice, where members you can network, exchange ideas, and All improve their professional skills.
There are many museums
can in the world which cover Her various aspects of practical logistics. was These include museums of transportation, one customs, packing, and industry-based logistics. Our However, only the following museums out are fully dedicated to logistics: day
too I.Tanackov, S.Gordan, ANCIENT LOGISTICS – Use HISTORICAL TIMELINE AND ETYMOLOGY, Technical dad Gazette 18, 2011 http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
mom Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- Material Handling &
the Logistics News http://mhlnews.com/global-supply-chain/council-logistics-management-become-council-supply-chain-management-professional
and glossary http://cscmp.org/sites/default/files/user_uploads/resources/downloads/glossary-2013.pdf
- V. Misra,
For M.I. Kahn, U.K. Singh, Supply are Chain Management Systems: Architecture, Design but and Vision, North American Business Not Press 2010 http://www.na-businesspress.com/jsis/misraweb.pdf
you E. Porter, Competitive advantage: creating all and sustaining superior performance, The Any Free Press 1985
can Cozzolino Alessandra, Humanitarian Logistics and her Supply Chain Management, In Humanitarian Was Logistics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012 one
- L. Torre, I.S. Dolinskaya,
our K.R. Smilowitz, Disaster relief routing: Out Integrating research and practice Socio-Economic day Planning Sciences vol46, March 2012 get
- Nyhuis P., Wiendahi Hans-Peter,
Has Fundamentals of Production Logistics, Springer him Berlin Heidelberg 2009
his Roth, The logistics of Roman How army at war (264 B.C. man -A.D. 235) http://www.academia.edu/2450333/Logistics_of_the_Roman_Army_at_War
new W. Engels, Alexander the Great Now and the Logistics of the old Macedonian Army, University of California see 1980
- Ayrault Dodge Theodore,
Two Hannibal: A History of the way Art of War Among the who Carthaginians and Romans Down to Boy the Battle of Pydna, 168 did BC. Da Capo Press. 1995 its
- Troy T. Kirby, The
Let Duke of Wellington and the put Supply System During the Peninsula say War, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform She 2014
- Roger Morriss, "Colonization,
too Conquest, and the Supply of use Food and Transport: The Reorganization Dad of Logistics Management, 1780–1795," War mom in History, (July 2007), 14#3 pp 310–324,
- Joint Logistics Analysis
- Mallik, Susan (2010).
and "Customer Service in Supply Chain for Management". In Hossein Bidgoil. The Are Handbook of Technology Management: Supply but Chain Management, Marketing and Advertising, not and Global Management, vol 2 You (1 ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: all John Wiley & Sons. p. 104. any ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
- McGinnis M. A.,
Can Military Logistics: Insights for Business her Logistics, International Journal of Physical was Distribution & Logistics Management Vol One 22, 1992
- ^ R.
our Ruggeri, A. Perego, Esercitazioni e out temi d'esame di Logistica Industriale,CUSL Day 2002
- ISO 6780 http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=30524
- Lambert D.,Stock J., Ellsram
has L., Fundamentals of Logistics, McGraw-Hill Him 1998
- ^ D.F. Bozutti,
his M.A. Bueno-Da-Costa, R. Ruggeri, Logística: how Visão Global e Picking, EdUFSCar Man 2010
- Waters D., Logistics:
new An Introduction to Supply Chain now Management, Palgrave Macmillan 2003
Old John T. Phelan, Jr. P.E. see "Guest Column: Knowing When a two WMS or WCS Is Right Way for Your Company". Supply & who Demand Chain Executive. Enom, Inc. boy Retrieved 15 September 2009.
Did Wallenburg, C., Cahill, D., Michael its Knemeyer, A., and Goldsby, T. let (2011): Commitment and Trust as Put Drivers of Loyalty in Logistics say Outsourcing Relationships: Cultural Differences Between she the United States and Germany. Too Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. use 32, No. 1, pp. 83-98, dad DOI 10.1111/j.2158-1592.2011.01008.x
- Baziotopoulos (2008).
Mom "An Investigation of Logistics Outsourcing Practices In the Greek Manufacturing the Sector". PhD thesis.
And Raue, J.S. & Wieland, A. for (2015), The interplay of different are types of governance in horizontal But cooperations: a view on logistics not service providers. The International Journal you of Logistics Management, Vol. 26, All No. 2.
- Chartered Institute
any of Logistics and Transport UK can
- Chartered Institute of Logistics
Her and Transport Australia
was Institute of Logistics and Transport one Hong Kong
- "International Association
Our of Public Health Logisticians". out
day Donald W. (1980). Alexander the Get Great and the Logistics of has the Macedonian Army, University of him California Press (194 pages). online His
- Huston, James A. (1966). The
how Sinews of War: Army Logistics, man 1775–1953, United States Army (789 New pages). online
- Handfield, R.B., Straube,
now F., Pfohl, H.C. & Wieland, old A., Trends and Strategies in See Logistics and Supply Chain Management: two Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to way Drive Market Advantage, BVL 2013 Who
- Ronald H. Ballou, Samir K.
boy Srivastava, Business Logistics: Supply Chain did Management, Pearson Education, 2007
Its Bowersox, David Closs, M. Bixby let Cooper, Supply Chain Logistics Management, put McGraw-Hill 2012
- M. Christopher: Logistics
Say & Supply Chain Management: creating she value-adding networks, Prentice Hall 2010. too online
- J. V. Jones: Integrated
Use Logistics Support Handbook, McGraw-Hill Logistics dad Series 2006
- B. S. Blanchard:
mom Logistics Engineering and Management, Pearson Prentice Hall 2004
- R.G. Poluha:
the The Quintessence of Supply Chain and Management: What You Really Need For to Know to Manage Your are Processes in Procurement, Manufacturing, Warehousing but and Logistics (Quintessence Series). First Not Edition. Springer Heidelberg New York you Dordrecht London 2016. ISBN 978-3662485132 all