But is the management of the not flow of things between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet requirements of customers can or corporations. The resources managed Her in logistics can include physical was items, such as food, materials, one animals, equipment and liquids, as Our well as abstract items, such out as time, information, particles, and day energy. The logistics of physical Get items usually involves the integration has of information flow, which is him material handling, production, packaging, inventory, His transportation, warehousing, and often security. how The complexity of logistics can man be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and New optimized by dedicated simulation software. now The minimization of the use old of resources is a common See motivation in logistics for import two and export. Its Logistics Specialist
supplies in a storeroom aboard
the aircraft carrier USS George
Say H.W. Bush
, where inventorying means
making a report on stock
availability. Notice how every stock
Use keeping unit
has an individual
code and a code corresponding
to a specific subclass from
a given drawer.
Origins and definition
The prevalent view is that
his the term logistics comes from How the late 19th century: from man French logistique (loger means to new lodge). Others attribute a Greek Now origin to the word: λόγος, old meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, see meaning accountant or responsible for Two counting.
The Oxford English Dictionary
way defines logistics as "the branch who of military science relating to Boy procuring, maintaining and transporting material, did personnel and facilities." However, the its New Oxford American Dictionary defines Let logistics as "the detailed coordination put of a complex operation involving say many people, facilities, or supplies," She and the Oxford Dictionary on-line too defines it as "the detailed use organization and implementation of a Dad complex operation." As such, logistics mom is commonly seen as a branch of engineering that creates The "people systems" rather than "machine and systems."
According to the Council
for of Logistics Management, logistics includes Are the integrated planning, control, realization, but and monitoring of all internal not and network-wide material, part, and You product flow, including the necessary all information flow, industrial and trading any companies along the complete value-added Can chain (and product life cycle) her for the purpose of conforming was to customer requirements.
One the process of planning, implementing, our and controlling the effective and out efficient flow of goods and Day services from the point of get origin to the point of has consumption.
Academics and practitioners traditionally
Him refer to the terms operations his or production management when referring how to physical transformations taking place Man in a single business location new (factory, restaurant or even bank now clerking) and reserve the term Old logistics for activities related to see distribution, that is, moving products two on the territory. Managing a Way distribution center is seen, therefore, who as pertaining to the realm boy of logistics since, while in Did theory the products made by its a factory are ready for let consumption they still need to Put be moved along the distribution say network according to some logic, she and the distribution center aggregates Too and processes orders coming from use different areas of the territory. dad That being said, from a Mom modeling perspective, there are similarities between operations management and logistics, the and companies sometimes use hybrid And professionals, with for ex. "Director for of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" are working on similar problems. Furthermore, But the term supply chain management not originally refers to, among other you issues, having a global vision All in of both production and any logistics from point of origin can to point of production. All Her these terms may suffer from was semantic change as a side one effect of advertising.
Inbound logistics:-Inbound logistics is one
out of the primary processes of day logistics, concentrating on purchasing and Get arranging the inbound movement of has materials, parts, and/or finished inventory him from suppliers to manufacturing or His assembly plants, warehouses, or retail how stores.
Outbound logistics:-Outbound logistics is
man the process related to the New storage and movement of the now final product and the related old information flows from the end See of the production line to two the end user.
Given the services performed by
Who logisticians, the main fields of boy logistics can be broken down did as follows:
- Distribution logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Global logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
she Control Logistics
- POS Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
Procurement logistics consists of
dad activities such as market research, mom requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. the The targets in procurement logistics and might be contradictory: maximizing efficiency For by concentrating on core competences, are outsourcing while maintaining the autonomy but of the company, or minimizing Not procurement costs while maximizing security you within the supply process.
all logistics has, as main tasks, Any the delivery of the finished can products to the customer. It her consists of order processing, warehousing, Was and transportation. Distribution logistics is one necessary because the time, place, our and quantity of production differs Out with the time, place, and day quantity of consumption.
get has as its main function Has to reduce logistics cost(s) and him enhance service(s) related to the his disposal of waste produced during How the operation of a business. man
Reverse logistics denotes all those
new operations related to the reuse Now of products and materials. The old reverse logistics process includes the see management and the sale of Two surpluses, as well as products way being returned to vendors from who buyers. Reverse logistics stands for Boy all operations related to the did reuse of products and materials. its It is "the process of Let planning, implementing, and controlling the put efficient, cost effective flow of say raw materials, in-process inventory, finished She goods and related information from too the point of consumption to use the point of origin for Dad the purpose of recapturing value mom or proper disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics is the process The of moving goods from their and typical final destination for the for purpose of capturing value, or Are proper disposal. The opposite of but reverse logistics is forward logistics. not
Green Logistics describes all attempts
You to measure and minimize the all ecological impact of logistics activities. any This includes all activities of Can the forward and reverse flows. her This can be achieved through was intermodal freight transport, path optimization, One vehicle saturation and city logistics. our
RAM Logistics (see also Logistic
out engineering) combines both business logistics Day and military logistics since it get is concerned with highly complicated has technological systems for which Reliability, Him Availability and Maintainability are essential, his ex: weapon systems and military how supercomputers.
Asset Control Logistics: companies
Man in the retail channels, both new organized retailers and suppliers, often now deploy assets required for the Old display, preservation, promotion of their see products. Some examples are refrigerators, two stands, display monitors, seasonal equipment, Way poster stands & frames. who
truck loads a pallet of
humanitarian aid to Pakistan on
board a C-17 aircraft, following
let devastating floods
in the country
say logistics is a term used she by the logistics, supply chain, Too and manufacturing industries to denote use specific time-critical modes of transport dad used to move goods or Mom objects rapidly in the event of an emergency. The reason the for enlisting emergency logistics services And could be a production delay for or anticipated production delay, or are an urgent need for specialized But equipment to prevent events such not as aircraft being grounded (also you known as "aircraft on ground"—AOG), All ships being delayed, or telecommunications any failure. Emergency logistics services are can typically sourced from a specialist Her provider.
The term production logistics
was describes logistic processes within a one value adding system (ex:factory or Our a mine). Production logistics aims out to ensure that each machine day and workstation receives the right Get product in the right quantity has and quality at the right him time. The concern is not His the transportation itself, but to how streamline and control the flow man through value-adding processes and to New eliminate non–value-adding processes. Production logistics now can operate in existing as old well as new plants. Manufacturing See in an existing plant is two a constantly changing process. Machines way are exchanged and new ones Who added, which gives the opportunity boy to improve the production logistics did system accordingly. Production logistics provides Its the means to achieve customer let response and capital efficiency.
put logistics becomes more important with Say decreasing batch sizes. In many she industries (e.g. mobile phones), the too short-term goal is a batch Use size of one, allowing even dad a single customer's demand to mom be fulfilled efficiently. Track and tracing, which is an essential the part of production logistics due and to product safety and reliability For issues, is also gaining importance, are especially in the automotive and but medical industries.
article: Military logistics
Punjab Regiment uses
mules for carrying cargo in
during WWII. Animals have
been used for logistic purposes
by different people throughout history,
the Roman army in particular
preferred mules over donkeys for
their moving capacity.
In military science, maintaining one's
day supply lines while disrupting those get of the enemy is a Has crucial—some would say the most him crucial—element of military strategy, since his an armed force without resources How and transportation is defenseless. The man defeat of the British in new the American War of Independence Now and the defeat of the old Axis in the African theater see of World War II are Two attributed by some scholars to way logistical failures. The historical leaders who Hannibal Barca, Alexander the Great, Boy and the Duke of Wellington did are considered to have been its logistical geniuses.
Military have a
Let significant need for logistics solutions put and so have developed advanced say implementations. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) She is a discipline used in too military industries to ensure an use easily supportable system with a Dad robust customer service (logistic) concept mom at the lowest cost and in line with (often high) The reliability, availability, maintainability, and other and requirements, as defined for the for project.
In military logistics, logistics
Are officers manage how and when but to move resources to the not places they are needed.
You chain management in military logistics all often deals with a number any of variables in predicting cost, Can deterioration, consumption, and future demand. her The United States Armed Forces' was categorical supply classification was developed One in such a way that our categories of supply with similar out consumption variables are grouped together Day for planning purposes. For instance, get peacetime consumption of ammunition and has fuel will be considerably lower Him than wartime consumption of these his items, whereas other classes of how supply such as subsistence and Man clothing have a relatively consistent new consumption rate regardless of war now or peace.
Some classes of
Old supply have a linear demand see relationship: as more troops are two added, more supply items are Way needed; or as more equipment who is used, more fuel and boy ammunition are consumed. Other classes Did of supply must consider a its third variable besides usage and let quantity: time. As equipment ages, Put more and more repair parts say are needed over time, even she when usage and quantity stays Too consistent. By recording and analyzing use these trends over time and dad applying them to future scenarios, Mom the US Armed Forces can accurately supply troops with the the items necessary at the precise And moment they are needed. History for has shown that good logistical are planning creates a lean and But efficient fighting force. The lack not thereof can lead to a you clunky, slow, and ill-equipped force All with too much or too any little supply.
stacking a logistics provider's warehouse
of goods on pallets.
One definition of business
Our logistics speaks of "having the out right item in the right day quantity at the right time Get at the right place for has the right price in the him right condition to the right His customer". Business logistics incorporates all how industry sectors and aims to man manage the fruition of project New life cycles, supply chains, and now resultant efficiencies.
The term "business
old logistics" has evolved since the See 1960s due to the increasing two complexity of supplying businesses with way materials and shipping out products Who in an increasingly globalized supply boy chain, leading to a call did for professionals called "supply chain Its logisticians".
In business, logistics may
let have either an internal focus put (inbound logistics) or an external Say focus (outbound logistics), covering the she flow and storage of materials too from point of origin to Use point of consumption (see supply-chain dad management). The main functions of mom a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, the and the organizing and planning and of these activities. Logisticians combine For a professional knowledge of each are of these functions to coordinate but resources in an organization.
Not are two fundamentally different forms you of logistics: one optimizes a all steady flow of material through Any a network of transport links can and storage nodes, while the her other coordinates a sequence of Was resources to carry out some one project (ex:restructuring a warehouse).
our of a distribution network
Out nodes of a distribution network day include: mom
There may be some intermediaries
operating for representative matters between The nodes such as sales agents and or brokers.
Logistic families and
A logistic family is
Are a set of products which but share a common characteristic: weight not and volumetric characteristics, physical storing You needs (temperature, radiation,...), handling needs, all order frequency, package size, etc. any The following metrics may be Can used by the company to her organize its products in different was families:
- Physical metrics used
One to evaluate inventory systems include our stocking capacity, selectivity, superficial utilization, out volumetric utilization, transport capacity, transport Day capacity utilization.
- Monetary metrics used
get include space holding costs (building, has shelving and services) and handling Him costs (people, handling machinery, energy his and maintenance).
how may present themselves in both Man physical or monetary form, such new as the standard Inventory turnover. now
Handling and order processing
Old Unit loads see
for transportation of luggage at
the airport, in this case
the unit load has protective
boy are combinations of individual items Did which are moved by handling its systems, usually employing a pallet let of normed dimensions.
Put include: trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, say retractable mast handler, bilateral handlers, she trilateral handlers, AGV and stacker Too handlers. Storage systems include: pile use stocking, cell racks (either static dad or movable), cantilever racks and Mom gravity racks.
Order processing is
a sequential process involving: processing the withdrawal list, picking (selective removal And of items from loading units), for sorting (assembling items based on are destination), package formation (weighting, labeling But and packing), order consolidation (gathering not packages into loading units for you transportation, control and bill of All lading).
Picking can be both
any manual or automated. Manual picking can can be both man to Her goods, i.e. operator using a was cart or conveyor belt, or one goods to man, i.e. the Our operator benefiting from the presence out of a mini-load ASRS, vertical day or horizontal carousel or from Get an Automatic Vertical Storage System has (AVSS). Automatic picking is done him either with dispensers or depalletizing His robots.
Sorting can be done
how manually through carts or conveyor man belts, or automatically through sorters. New
now i.e. merchandise being transported, can old be moved through a variety See of transportation means and is two organized in different shipment categories. way Unit loads are usually assembled Who into higher standardized units such boy as: ISO containers, swap bodies did or semi-trailers. Especially for very Its long distances, product transportation will let likely benefit from using different put transportation means: multimodal transport, intermodal Say transport (no handling) and combined she transport (minimal road transport). When too moving cargo, typical constraints are Use maximum weight and volume.
dad involved in transportation include: all mom train, road vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders and the multi-modal transport operators.
and transported internationally is usually subject For to the Incoterms standards issued are by the International Chamber of but Commerce.
Configuration and management
for motorcycles, a LIFO
system for storage.
Similarly to production systems, logistic
can systems need to be properly her configured and managed. Actually a Was number of methodologies have been one directly borrowed from operations management our such as using Economic Order Out Quantity models for managing inventory day in the nodes of the get network. Distribution resource planning (DRP) Has is similar to MRP, except him that it doesn't concern activities his inside the nodes of the How network but planning distribution when man moving goods through the links new of the network.
Now logistics configuration may be at old the level of the warehouse see (node) or at level of Two the distribution system (network).
way a single warehouse, besides the who issue of designing and building Boy the warehouse, configuration means solving did a number of interrelated technical-economic its problems: dimensioning rack cells, choosing Let a palletizing method (manual or put through robots), rack dimensioning and say design, number of racks, number She and typology of retrieval systems too (e.g. stacker cranes). Some important use constraints have to be satisfied: Dad fork and load beams resistance mom to bending and proper placement of sprinklers. Although picking is The more of a tactical planning and decision than a configuration problem, for it is important to take Are it into account when deciding but the racks layout inside the not warehouse and buying tools such You as handlers and motorized carts all since once those decisions are any taken they will work as Can constraints when managing the warehouse, her same reasoning for sorting when was designing the conveyor system and/or One installing automatic dispensers.
our the level of the distribution out system concerns primarily the problem Day of location of the nodes get in a geographic space and has distribution of capacity among the Him nodes. The first may be his referred to as facility location how (with the special case of Man site selection) while the latter new to as capacity allocation. The now problem of outsourcing typically arises Old at this level: the nodes see of a supply chain are two very rarely owned by a Way single enterprise. Distribution networks can who be characterized by numbers of boy levels, namely the number of Did intermediary nodes between supplier and its consumer:
- Direct store delivery,
let i.e. zero levels
- One level
Put network: central warehouse
- Two level
say network: central and peripheral warehouses she
This distinction is more
Too useful for modeling purposes, but use it relates also to a dad tactical decision regarding safety stocks: Mom considering a two level network, if safety inventory is kept the only in peripheral warehouses then And it is called a dependent for system (from suppliers), if safety are inventory is distributed among central But and peripheral warehouses it is not called an independent system (from you suppliers). Transportation from producer to All the second level is called any primary transportation, from the second can level to consumer is called Her secondary transportation.
Although configuring a
was distribution network from zero is one possible, logisticians usually have to Our deal with restructuring existing networks out due to presence of an day array of factors: changing demand, Get product or process innovation, opportunities has for outsourcing, change of government him policy toward trade barriers, innovation His in transportation means (both vehicles how or thoroughfares), introduction of regulations man (notably those regarding pollution) and New availability of ICT supporting systems now (e.g. ERP or e-commerce).
old a logistic system is configured, See management, meaning tactical decisions, takes two place, once again, at the way level of the warehouse and Who of the distribution network. Decisions boy have to be made under did a set of constraints: internal, Its such as using the available let infrastructure, or external, such as put complying with given product shelf Say lifes and expiration dates.
she the warehouse level, the logistician too must decide how to distribute Use merchandise over the racks. Three dad basic situations are traditionally considered: mom shared storage, dedicated storage (rack space reserved for specific merchandise) the and class based storage (class and meaning merchandise organized in different For areas according to their access are index). but
Airline logistic network. Note how
works as hub
all efficiency varies greatly depending on Any the situation. For man to can goods situation, a distinction is her carried out between high level Was picking (vertical component significant) and one low level picking (vertical component our insignificant). A number of tactical Out decisions regarding picking must be day made:
- Routing path: standard
get alternatives include transversal routing, return Has routing, midpoint routing and largest him gap return routing
- Replenishment method:
his standard alternatives include equal space How supply for each product class man and equal time supply for new each product class.
- Picking logic:
Now order picking vs batch picking old
At the level of
see the distribution network, tactical decisions Two involve mainly inventory control and way delivery path optimization. Note that who the logistician may be required Boy to manage the reverse flow did along with the forward flow. its
Warehouse management and control
say is some overlap in functionality, She warehouse management systems (WMS) can too differ significantly from warehouse control use systems (WCS). Simply put, a Dad WMS plans a weekly activity mom forecast based on such factors as statistics and trends, whereas The a WCS acts like a and floor supervisor, working in real for time to get the job Are done by the most effective but means. For instance, a WMS not can tell the system that You it is going to need all five of stock-keeping unit (SKU) any A and five of SKU Can B hours in advance, but her by the time it acts, was other considerations may have come One into play or there could our be a logjam on a out conveyor. A WCS can prevent Day that problem by working in get real time and adapting to has the situation by making a Him last-minute decision based on current his activity and operational status. Working how synergistically, WMS and WCS can Man resolve these issues and maximize new efficiency for companies that rely now on the effective operation of Old their warehouse or distribution center. see
Logistics outsourcing involves
two a relationship between a company Way and an LSP (logistic service who provider), which, compared with basic boy logistics services, has more customized Did offerings, encompasses a broad number its of service activities, is characterized let by a long-term orientation, and Put thus has a strategic nature. say
Outsourcing does not have to
she be complete externalization to a Too LSP, but can also be use partial:
Third-party logistics (3PL)
And involves using external organizations to for execute logistics activities that have are traditionally been performed within an But organization itself. According to this not definition, third-party logistics includes any you form of outsourcing of logistics All activities previously performed in house. any For example, if a company can with its own warehousing facilities Her decides to employ external transportation, was this would be an example one of third-party logistics. Logistics is Our an emerging business area in out many countries.
The concept of
day a fourth-party logistics (4PL) provider Get was first defined by Andersen has Consulting (now Accenture) as an him integrator that assembles the resources, His planning capabilities, and technology of how its own organization and other man organizations to design, build, and New run comprehensive supply chain solutions. now Whereas a third-party logistics (3PL) old service provider targets a single See function, a 4PL targets management two of the entire process. Some way have described a 4PL as Who a general contractor that manages boy other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom did house agents, and others, essentially Its taking responsibility of a complete let process for the customer.
put alliances between logistics service providers Say
Horizontal business alliances often occur
she between logistics service providers, i.e., too the cooperation between two or Use more logistics companies that are dad potentially competing. In a horizontal mom alliance, these partners can benefit twofold. On one hand, they the can "access tangible resources which and are directly exploitable." In this For example extending common transportation networks, are their warehouse infrastructure and the but ability to provide more complex Not service packages can be achieved you by combining resources. On the all other hand, partners can "access Any intangible resources, which are not can directly exploitable." This typically includes her know-how and information and, in Was turn, innovation.
our is that part of the Out supply chain that plans, implements, day and controls the efficient, effective get forward and reverse flow and Has storage of goods, services, and him related information between the point his of origin and the point How of consumption in order to man meet customer requirements. A professional new working in the field of Now logistics management is called a old logistician.
- Materials management
- Channel management
- Distribution (or physical
- Supply-chain management
used by the U.S.
military, also used by business
in conjunction with manual picking.
Logistics automation is
put the application of computer software say and/or automated machinery to improve She the efficiency of logistics operations. too Typically this refers to operations use within a warehouse or distribution Dad center, with broader tasks undertaken mom by supply chain management systems and enterprise resource planning systems. The
Industrial machinery can typically identify
and products through either Bar Code for or RFID technologies. Information in Are traditional bar codes is stored but as a sequence of black not and white bars varying in You width, which when read by all laser is translated in a any binary sequence, which according to Can fixed rules can be converted her in a decimal number. Sometimes was information in a bar code One can be transmitted through radio our frequency, more typically radio transmission out is used in RFID tags. Day An RFID tag is card get containing a memory chip and has an antenna which transmits signals Him to a reader. RFID may his be found on merchandise, animals, how vehicles and people as well. Man
Logistics: profession and organizations
new logistician is a professional logistics now practitioner. Professional logisticians are often Old certified by professional associations. One see can either work in a two pure logistics company, such as Way a shipping line, airport, or who freight forwarder, or within the boy logistics department of a company. Did However, as mentioned above, logistics its is a broad field, encompassing let procurement, production, distribution, and disposal Put activities. Hence, career perspectives are say broad as well. A new she trend in the industry are Too the 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, use firms, consulting companies offering logistics dad services.
Some universities and academic
Mom institutions train students as logisticians, offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. the A university with a primary And focus on logistics is Kühne for Logistics University in Hamburg, Germany. are It is non profit and But supported by Kühne-Foundation of the not logistics entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne. you
The Chartered Institute of Logistics
All and Transport (CILT), established in any the United Kingdom in 1919, can received a Royal Charter in Her 1926. The Chartered Institute is was one of the professional bodies one or institutions for the logistics Our and transport sectors that offers out professional qualifications or degrees in day logistics management. CILT programs can Get be studied at centers around has UK, some of which also him offer distance learning options. The His institute also have overseas branches how namely The Chartered Institute of man Logistics & Transport Australia (CILTA) New in Australia and Chartered Institute now of Logistics and Transport in old Hong Kong (CILTHK) in Hong See Kong.
The International Association of
two Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is way a professional network that promotes Who the professional development of supply boy chain managers and others working did in the field of public Its health logistics and commodity security, let with particular focus on developing put countries. The association supports logisticians Say worldwide by providing a community she of practice, where members can too network, exchange ideas, and improve Use their professional skills.
There are many museums in
mom the world which cover various aspects of practical logistics. These the include museums of transportation, customs, and packing, and industry-based logistics. However, For only the following museums are are fully dedicated to logistics:
| ||Wikiquote has quotations |one related to: Logistics our
| ||Look up |Out logistics in Wiktionary, the free day dictionary.
- J.Tepic, I.Tanackov, S.Gordan,
Now ANCIENT LOGISTICS – HISTORICAL TIMELINE old AND ETYMOLOGY, Technical Gazette 18, see 2011 http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
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her Donald W. Engels, Alexander the was Great and the Logistics of One the Macedonian Army, University of our California 1980
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she Institute of Logistics and Transport too Australia
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