But is the management of the not flow of goods between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet some requirements, of can customers or corporations. The resources Her managed in logistics can include was physical items, such as food, one materials, animals, equipment and liquids, Our as well as abstract items, out such as time, information, particles, day and energy. The logistics of Get physical items usually involves the has integration of information flow, material him handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, His warehousing, and often security. The how complexity of logistics can be man modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized New by dedicated simulation software. The now minimization of the use of old resources is a common motivation See in logistics for import and two export. did Its Logistics Specialist
in a storeroom aboard the
aircraft carrier USS George H.W.
, where inventorying means making
a report on stock availability.
Notice how every stock keeping
has an individual code
and a code corresponding to
a specific subclass from a
Origins and definition
him view is that the term his logistics comes from the late How 19th century: from French logistique man (loger means to lodge). Others new attribute a Greek origin to Now the word: λόγος, meaning reason old or speech; λογιστικός, meaning accountant see or responsible for counting.
Two Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics way as "the branch of military who science relating to procuring, maintaining Boy and transporting material, personnel and did facilities." However, the New Oxford its American Dictionary defines logistics as Let "the detailed coordination of a put complex operation involving many people, say facilities, or supplies," and the She Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it too as "the detailed organization and use implementation of a complex operation." Dad As such, logistics is commonly mom seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" The rather than "machine systems."
and to the Council of Logistics for Management, logistics includes the integrated Are planning, control, realization, and monitoring but of all internal and network-wide not material, part, and product flow, You including the necessary information flow, all industrial and trading companies along any the complete value-added chain (and Can product life cycle) for the her purpose of conforming to customer was requirements.
Logistics is the process
One of planning, implementing, and controlling our the effective and efficient flow out of goods and services from Day the point of origin to get the point of consumption.
has and practitioners traditionally refer to Him the terms operations or production his management when referring to physical how transformations taking place in a Man single business location (factory, restaurant new or even bank clerking) and now reserve the term logistics for Old activities related to distribution, that see is, moving products on the two territory. Managing a distribution center Way is seen, therefore, as pertaining who to the realm of logistics boy since, while in theory the Did products made by a factory its are ready for consumption they let still need to be moved Put along the distribution network according say to some logic, and the she distribution center aggregates and processes Too orders coming from different areas use of the territory. That being dad said, from a modeling perspective, Mom there are similarities between operations management and logistics, and companies the sometimes use hybrid professionals, with And for ex. "Director of Operations" for or "Logistics Officer" working on are similar problems. Furthermore, the term But supply chain management originally refers not to, among other issues, having you a global vision in of All both production and logistics from any point of origin to point can of production. All these terms Her may suffer from semantic change was as a side effect of one advertising.
Our is one of the primary out processes of logistics, concentrating on day purchasing and arranging the inbound Get movement of materials, parts, and/or has finished inventory from suppliers to him manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses, His or retail stores. Outbound logistics how is the process related to man the storage and movement of New the final product and the now related information flows from the old end of the production line See to the end user.
Given the services performed
way by logisticians, the main fields Who of logistics can be broken boy down as follows:
- Procurement logistics
- Distribution logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Green logistics
- Global logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
- Asset Control Logistics
- POS Material
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
Procurement logistics consists
Use of activities such as market dad research, requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, mom supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. The targets in procurement the logistics might be contradictory: maximizing and efficiency by concentrating on core For competences, outsourcing while maintaining the are autonomy of the company, or but minimizing procurement costs while maximizing Not security within the supply process. you
Distribution logistics has, as main
all tasks, the delivery of the Any finished products to the customer. can It consists of order processing, her warehousing, and transportation. Distribution logistics Was is necessary because the time, one place, and quantity of production our differs with the time, place, Out and quantity of consumption.
day logistics has as its main get function to reduce logistics cost(s) Has and enhance service(s) related to him the disposal of waste produced his during the operation of a How business.
Reverse logistics denotes all
man those operations related to the new reuse of products and materials. Now The reverse logistics process includes old the management and the sale see of surpluses, as well as Two products being returned to vendors way from buyers. Reverse logistics stands who for all operations related to Boy the reuse of products and did materials. It is "the process its of planning, implementing, and controlling Let the efficient, cost effective flow put of raw materials, in-process inventory, say finished goods and related information She from the point of consumption too to the point of origin use for the purpose of recapturing Dad value or proper disposal. More mom precisely, reverse logistics is the process of moving goods from The their typical final destination for and the purpose of capturing value, for or proper disposal. The opposite Are of reverse logistics is forward but logistics.
Green Logistics describes all
not attempts to measure and minimize You the ecological impact of logistics all activities. This includes all activities any of the forward and reverse Can flows. This can be achieved her through intermodal freight transport, path was optimization, vehicle saturation and city One logistics.
RAM Logistics (see also
our Logistic engineering) combines both business out logistics and military logistics since Day it is concerned with highly get complicated technological systems for which has Reliability, Availability and Maintainability are Him essential, ex: weapon systems and his military supercomputers.
Asset Control Logistics:
how companies in the retail channels, Man both organized retailers and suppliers, new often deploy assets required for now the display, preservation, promotion of Old their products. Some examples are see refrigerators, stands, display monitors, seasonal two equipment, poster stands & frames. Way who
A forklift truck loads a
pallet of humanitarian aid to
Pakistan on board a C-17
aircraft, following devastating floods
the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is a
say term used by the logistics, she supply chain, and manufacturing industries Too to denote specific time-critical modes use of transport used to move dad goods or objects rapidly in Mom the event of an emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency the logistics services could be a And production delay or anticipated production for delay, or an urgent need are for specialized equipment to prevent But events such as aircraft being not grounded (also known as "aircraft you on ground"—AOG), ships being delayed, All or telecommunications failure. Emergency logistics any services are typically sourced from can a specialist provider.
Her production logistics describes logistic processes was within a value adding system one (ex:factory or a mine). Production Our logistics aims to ensure that out each machine and workstation receives day the right product in the Get right quantity and quality at has the right time. The concern him is not the transportation itself, His but to streamline and control how the flow through value-adding processes man and to eliminate non–value-adding processes. New Production logistics can operate in now existing as well as new old plants. Manufacturing in an existing See plant is a constantly changing two process. Machines are exchanged and way new ones added, which gives Who the opportunity to improve the boy production logistics system accordingly. Production did logistics provides the means to Its achieve customer response and capital let efficiency.or
Production logistics becomes more
put important with decreasing batch sizes. Say In many industries (e.g. mobile she phones), the short-term goal is too a batch size of one, Use allowing even a single customer's dad demand to be fulfilled efficiently. mom Track and tracing, which is an essential part of production the logistics due to product safety and and reliability issues, is also For gaining importance, especially in the are automotive and medical industries.
but logistics Not
Regiment uses mules for carrying
cargo during WWII. Animals have
been used for logistic purposes
by different people throughout history,
the Roman army in particular
preferred mules over donkeys for
their moving capacity.
In military science, maintaining one's
Out supply lines while disrupting those day of the enemy is a get crucial—some would say the most Has crucial—element of military strategy, since him an armed force without resources his and transportation is defenseless. The How defeat of the British in man the American War of Independence new and the defeat of the Now Axis in the African theater old of World War II are see attributed by some scholars to Two logistical failures. The historical leaders way Hannibal Barca, Alexander the Great, who and the Duke of Wellington Boy are considered to have been did logistical geniuses.
Military have a
its significant need for logistics solutions Let and so have developed advanced put implementations. Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) say is a discipline used in She military industries to ensure an too easily supportable system with a use robust customer service (logistic) concept Dad at the lowest cost and mom in line with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other The requirements, as defined for the and project.
In military logistics, logistics
for officers manage how and when Are to move resources to the but places they are needed.
not chain management in military logistics You often deals with a number all of variables in predicting cost, any deterioration, consumption, and future demand. Can The United States Armed Forces' her categorical supply classification was developed was in such a way that One categories of supply with similar our consumption variables are grouped together out for planning purposes. For instance, Day peacetime consumption of ammunition and get fuel will be considerably lower has than wartime consumption of these Him items, whereas other classes of his supply such as subsistence and how clothing have a relatively consistent Man consumption rate regardless of war new or peace.
Some classes of
now supply have a linear demand Old relationship: as more troops are see added, more supply items are two needed; or as more equipment Way is used, more fuel and who ammunition are consumed. Other classes boy of supply must consider a Did third variable besides usage and its quantity: time. As equipment ages, let more and more repair parts Put are needed over time, even say when usage and quantity stays she consistent. By recording and analyzing Too these trends over time and use applying them to future scenarios, dad the US Armed Forces can Mom accurately supply troops with the items necessary at the precise the moment they are needed. History And has shown that good logistical for planning creates a lean and are efficient fighting force. The lack But thereof can lead to a not clunky, slow, and ill-equipped force you with too much or too All little supply.
stacking a logistics provider's warehouse
of goods on pallets.
One definition of business
one logistics speaks of "having the Our right item in the right out quantity at the right time day at the right place for Get the right price in the has right condition to the right him customer". Business logistics incorporates all His industry sectors and aims to how manage the fruition of project man life cycles, supply chains, and New resultant efficiencies.
The term "business
now logistics" has evolved since the old 1960s due to the increasing See complexity of supplying businesses with two materials and shipping out products way in an increasingly globalized supply Who chain, leading to a call boy for professionals called "supply chain did logisticians".
In business, logistics may
Its have either an internal focus let (inbound logistics) or an external put focus (outbound logistics), covering the Say flow and storage of materials she from point of origin to too point of consumption (see supply-chain Use management). The main functions of dad a qualified logistician include inventory mom management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, and the organizing and planning the of these activities. Logisticians combine and a professional knowledge of each For of these functions to coordinate are resources in an organization.
but are two fundamentally different forms Not of logistics: one optimizes a you steady flow of material through all a network of transport links Any and storage nodes, while the can other coordinates a sequence of her resources to carry out some Was project (ex:restructuring a warehouse).
one of a distribution network
our nodes of a distribution network Out include : Dad
There maybe some intermediaries operating
mom for representative matters between nodes such as sales agents or The brokers.
Logistic families and metrics
A logistic family is a
for set of products which share Are a common characteristic: weight and but volumetric characteristics, physical storing needs not (temperature, radiation,...), handling needs, order You frequency, package size, etc. The all following metrics may be used any by the company to organize Can its products in different families: her
- Physical metrics used to
was evaluate inventory systems include stocking One capacity, selectivity, superficial utilization, volumetric our utilization, transport capacity, transport capacity out utilization.
- Monetary metrics used include
Day space holding costs (building, shelving get and services) and handling costs has (people, handling machinery, energy and Him maintenance).
Other metrics may
his present themselves in both physical how or monetary form, such as Man the standard Inventory turnover.
new and Order Processing now Unit loads
transportation of luggage at the
airport, in this case the
unit load has protective function.
Unit loads are
who combinations of individual items which boy are moved by handling systems, Did usually employing a pallet of its normed dimensions.
Handling systems include:
let trans-pallet handlers, counterweight handler, retractable Put mast handler, bilateral handlers, trilateral say handlers, AGV and stacker handlers. she Storage systems include: pile stocking, Too cell racks (either static or use movable), cantilever racks and gravity dad racks.
Order processing is a
Mom sequential process involving: processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of the items from loading units), sorting And (assembling items based on destination), for package formation (weighting, labeling and are packing), order consolidation (gathering packages But into loading units for transportation, not control and bill of lading). you
Picking can be both manual
All or automated. Manual picking can any be both man to goods, can i.e. operator using a cart Her or conveyor belt, or goods was to man, i.e. the operator one benefiting from the presence of Our a mini-load ASRS, vertical or out horizontal carousel or from an day Automatic Vertical Storage System (AVSS). Get Automatic picking is done either has with dispensers or depalletizing robots. him
Sorting can be done manually
His through carts or conveyor belts, how or automatically through sorters.
New merchandise being transported, can be now moved through a variety of old transportation means and is organized See in different shipment categories. Unit two loads are usually assembled into way higher standardized units such as: Who ISO containers, swap bodies or boy semi-trailers. Especially for very long did distances, product transportation will likely Its benefit from using different transportation let means: multimodal transport, intermodal transport put (no handling) and combined transport Say (minimal road transport). When moving she cargo, typical constraints are maximum too weight and volume.
Use in transportation include: all train, dad road vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, mom couriers, freight forwarders and multi-modal transport operators.
Merchandise being transported
the internationally is usually subject to and the Incoterms standards issued by For the International Chamber of Commerce. are
Configuration and management
Push-Back rack for
motorcycles, a LIFO
all to production systems, logistic systems Any need to be properly configured can and managed. Actually a number her of methodologies have been directly Was borrowed from operations management such one as using Economic Order Quantity our models for managing inventory in Out the nodes of the network. day Distribution resource planning (DRP) is get similar to MRP, except that Has it doesn't concern activities inside him the nodes of the network his but planning distribution when moving How goods through the links of man the network.
Traditionally in logistics
new configuration may be at the Now level of the warehouse (node) old or at level of the see distribution system (network).
Two single warehouse, besides the issue way of designing and building the who warehouse, configuration means solving a Boy number of interrelated technical-economic problems: did dimensioning rack cells, choosing a its palletizing method (manual or through Let robots), rack dimensioning and design, put number of racks, number and say typology of retrieval systems (e.g. She stacker cranes). Some important constraints too have to be satisfied: fork use and load beams resistance to Dad bending and proper placement of mom sprinklers. Although picking is more of a tactical planning decision The than a configuration problem, it and is important to take it for into account when deciding the Are racks layout inside the warehouse but and buying tools such as not handlers and motorized carts since You once those decisions are taken all they will work as constraints any when managing the warehouse, same Can reasoning for sorting when designing her the conveyor system and/or installing was automatic dispensers.
Configuration at the
One level of the distribution system our concerns primarily the problem of out location of the nodes in Day a geographic space and distribution get of capacity among the nodes. has The first may be referred Him to as facility location (with his the special case of site how selection) while the latter to Man as capacity allocation. The problem new of outsourcing typically arises at now this level: the nodes of Old a supply chain are very see rarely owned by a single two enterprise. Distribution networks can be Way characterized by numbers of levels, who namely the number of intermediary boy nodes between supplier and consumer: Did
- Direct store delivery, i.e.
its zero levels
- One level network:
let central warehouse
- Two level network:
Put central and peripheral warehouses say
This distinction is more useful
she for modeling purposes, but it Too relates also to a tactical use decision regarding safety stocks: considering dad a two level network, if Mom safety inventory is kept only in peripheral warehouses then it the is called a dependent system And (from suppliers), if safety inventory for is distributed among central and are peripheral warehouses it is called But an independent system (from suppliers). not Transportation from producer to the you second level is called primary All transportation, from the second level any to consumer is called secondary can transportation.
Although configuring a distribution
Her network from zero is possible, was logisticians usually have to deal one with restructuring existing networks due Our to presence of an array out of factors: changing demand, product day or process innovation, opportunities for Get outsourcing, change of government policy has toward trade barriers, innovation in him transportation means (both vehicles or His thoroughfares), introduction of regulations (notably how those regarding pollution) and availability man of ICT supporting systems (e.g. New ERP or e-commerce).
now logistic system is configured, management, old meaning tactical decisions, takes place, See once again, at the level two of the warehouse and of way the distribution network. Decisions have Who to be made under a boy set of constraints: internal, such did as using the available infrastructure, Its or external, such as complying let with given product shelf lifes put and expiration dates.
Say warehouse level, the logistician must she decide how to distribute merchandise too over the racks. Three basic Use situations are traditionally considered: shared dad storage, dedicated storage (rack space mom reserved for specific merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning the merchandise organized in different areas and according to their access index). For
logistic network. Note how Denver
works as hub
you varies greatly depending on the all situation. For man to goods Any situation, a distinction is carried can out between high level picking her (vertical component significant) and low Was level picking (vertical component insignificant). one A number of tactical decisions our regarding picking must be made: Out
- Routing path: standard alternatives
day include transversal routing, return routing, get midpoint routing and largest gap Has return routing
- Replenishment method: standard
him alternatives include equal space supply his for each product class and How equal time supply for each man product class.
- Picking logic: order
new picking vs batch picking Now
At the level of the
old distribution network, tactical decisions involve see mainly inventory control and delivery Two path optimization. Note that the way logistician may be required to who manage the reverse flow along Boy with the forward flow.
did management systems and warehouse control its systems put
Although there is some overlap
say in functionality, warehouse management systems She (WMS) can differ significantly from too warehouse control systems (WCS). Simply use put, a WMS plans a Dad weekly activity forecast based on mom such factors as statistics and trends, whereas a WCS acts The like a floor supervisor, working and in real time to get for the job done by the Are most effective means. For instance, but a WMS can tell the not system that it is going You to need five of stock-keeping all unit (SKU) A and five any of SKU B hours in Can advance, but by the time her it acts, other considerations may was have come into play or One there could be a logjam our on a conveyor. A WCS out can prevent that problem by Day working in real time and get adapting to the situation by has making a last-minute decision based Him on current activity and operational his status. Working synergistically, WMS and how WCS can resolve these issues Man and maximize efficiency for companies new that rely on the effective now operation of their warehouse or Old distribution center.
see outsourcing involves a relationship between two a company and an LSP Way (logistic service provider), which, compared who with basic logistics services, has boy more customized offerings, encompasses a Did broad number of service activities, its is characterized by a long-term let orientation, and thus has a Put strategic nature.
Outsourcing does not
say have to be complete externalization she to a LSP, but can Too also be partial:
the logistics (3PL) involves using external And organizations to execute logistics activities for that have traditionally been performed are within an organization itself. According But to this definition, third-party logistics not includes any form of outsourcing you of logistics activities previously performed All in house. For example, if any a company with its own can warehousing facilities decides to employ Her external transportation, this would be was an example of third-party logistics. one Logistics is an emerging business Our area in many countries.
out concept of a fourth-party logistics day (4PL) provider was first defined Get by Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) has as an integrator that assembles him the resources, planning capabilities, and His technology of its own organization how and other organizations to design, man build, and run comprehensive supply New chain solutions. Whereas a third-party now logistics (3PL) service provider targets old a single function, a 4PL See targets management of the entire two process. Some have described a way 4PL as a general contractor Who that manages other 3PLs, truckers, boy forwarders, custom house agents, and did others, essentially taking responsibility of Its a complete process for the let customer.
Logistics management is
Say that part of the supply she chain that plans, implements, and too controls the efficient, effective forward Use and reverse flow and storage dad of goods, services, and related mom information between the point of origin and the point of the consumption in order to meet and customer requirements. A professional working For in the field of logistics are management is called a logistician. but
- Materials management
- Distribution (or physical distribution)
- Supply-chain management
all automation Any ASRS can
used by the U.S. military,
also used by business in
conjunction with manual picking.
Logistics automation is the
our application of computer software and/or Out automated machinery to improve the day efficiency of logistics operations. Typically get this refers to operations within Has a warehouse or distribution center, him with broader tasks undertaken by his supply chain management systems and How enterprise resource planning systems.
man machinery can typically identify products new through either Bar Code or Now RFID technologies. Information in traditional old bar codes is stored as see a sequence of black and Two white bars varying in width, way which when read by laser who is translated in a binary Boy sequence, which according to fixed did rules can be converted in its a decimal number. Sometimes information Let in a bar code can put be transmitted through radio frequency, say more typically radio transmission is She used in RFID tags. An too RFID tag is card containing use a memory chip and an Dad antenna which transmits signals to mom a reader. RFID may be found on merchandise, animals, vehicles The and people as well.
and profession and organizations
for is a professional logistics practitioner. Are Professional logisticians are often certified but by professional associations. One can not either work in a pure You logistics company, such as a all shipping line, airport, or freight any forwarder, or within the logistics Can department of a company. However, her as mentioned above, logistics is was a broad field, encompassing procurement, One production, distribution, and disposal activities. our Hence, career perspectives are broad out as well. A new trend Day in the industry are the get 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, firms, has consulting companies offering logistics services. Him
Some universities and academic institutions
his train students as logisticians, offering how undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A Man university with a primary focus new on logistics is Kühne Logistics now University in Hamburg, Germany. It Old is non profit and supported see by Kühne-Foundation of the logistics two entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne.
Way Chartered Institute of Logistics and who Transport (CILT), established in the boy United Kingdom in 1919, received Did a Royal Charter in 1926. its The Chartered Institute is one let of the professional bodies or Put institutions for the logistics and say transport sectors that offers professional she qualifications or degrees in logistics Too management. CILT programs can be use studied at centers around UK, dad some of which also offer Mom distance learning options. The institute also have overseas branches namely the The Chartered Institute of Logistics And & Transport Australia (CILTA) in for Australia and Chartered Institute of are Logistics and Transport in Hong But Kong (CILTHK) in Hong Kong. not
The International Association of Public
you Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is a All professional network that promotes the any professional development of supply chain can managers and others working in Her the field of public health was logistics and commodity security, with one particular focus on developing countries. Our The association supports logisticians worldwide out by providing a community of day practice, where members can network, Get exchange ideas, and improve their has professional skills.
him are many museums in the His world which cover various aspects how of practical logistics. These include man museums of transportation, customs, packing, New and industry-based logistics. However, only now the following museums are fully old dedicated to logistics:
let | ||Wikiquote has quotations related |put to: Logistics
| ||Look up logistics |she in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. too
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