But is the management of the not flow of goods between the you point of origin and the All point of consumption in order any to meet some requirements, of can customers or corporations. The resources Her managed in logistics can include was physical items, such as food, one materials, animals, equipment and liquids, Our as well as abstract items, out such as time, information, particles, day and energy. The logistics of Get physical items usually involves the has integration of information flow, material him handling, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, His warehousing, and often security. The how complexity of logistics can be man modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized New by dedicated simulation software. The now minimization of the use of old resources is a common motivation See in logistics for import and two export. did Its Logistics Specialist
in a storeroom aboard the
aircraft carrier USS George H.W.
, where inventorying means making
a report on stock availability.
Notice how every stock keeping
has an individual code
and a code corresponding to
a specific subclass from a
Origins and definition
The prevalent view is that
him the term logistics comes from his the late 19th century: from How French logistique (loger means to man lodge). Others attribute a Greek new origin to the word: λόγος, Now meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, old meaning accountant or responsible for see counting.
The Oxford English Dictionary
Two defines logistics as "the branch way of military science relating to who procuring, maintaining and transporting material, Boy personnel and facilities." However, the did New Oxford American Dictionary defines its logistics as "the detailed coordination Let of a complex operation involving put many people, facilities, or supplies," say and the Oxford Dictionary on-line She defines it as "the detailed too organization and implementation of a use complex operation." As such, logistics Dad is commonly seen as a mom branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine The systems."
According to the Council
and of Logistics Management, logistics includes for the integrated planning, control, realization, Are and monitoring of all internal but and network-wide material, part, and not product flow, including the necessary You information flow, industrial and trading all companies along the complete value-added any chain (and product life cycle) Can for the purpose of conforming her to customer requirements.
was the process of planning, implementing, One and controlling the effective and our efficient flow of goods and out services from the point of Day origin to the point of get consumption.
Academics and practitioners traditionally
has refer to the terms operations Him or production management when referring his to physical transformations taking place how in a single business location Man (factory, restaurant or even bank new clerking) and reserve the term now logistics for activities related to Old distribution, that is, moving products see on the territory. Managing a two distribution center is seen, therefore, Way as pertaining to the realm who of logistics since, while in boy theory the products made by Did a factory are ready for its consumption they still need to let be moved along the distribution Put network according to some logic, say and the distribution center aggregates she and processes orders coming from Too different areas of the territory. use That being said, from a dad modeling perspective, there are similarities Mom between operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid the professionals, with for ex. "Director And of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" for working on similar problems. Furthermore, are the term supply chain management But originally refers to, among other not issues, having a global vision you in of both production and All logistics from point of origin any to point of production. All can these terms may suffer from Her semantic change as a side was effect of advertising.
Inbound logistics is one of
Our the primary processes of logistics, out concentrating on purchasing and arranging day the inbound movement of materials, Get parts, and/or finished inventory from has suppliers to manufacturing or assembly him plants, warehouses, or retail stores. His Outbound logistics is the process how related to the storage and man movement of the final product New and the related information flows now from the end of the old production line to the end See user.
two services performed by logisticians, the way main fields of logistics can Who be broken down as follows: boy
- Procurement logistics
- After-sales logistics
- Disposal logistics
- Reverse logistics
- Green logistics
- Domestics logistics
- Concierge Service
- RAM logistics
- Asset Control Logistics
- POS Material Logistics
- Emergency Logistics
- Production Logistics
too logistics consists of activities such Use as market research, requirements planning, dad make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, mom and order controlling. The targets in procurement logistics might be the contradictory: maximizing efficiency by concentrating and on core competences, outsourcing while For maintaining the autonomy of the are company, or minimizing procurement costs but while maximizing security within the Not supply process.
Distribution logistics has,
you as main tasks, the delivery all of the finished products to Any the customer. It consists of can order processing, warehousing, and transportation. her Distribution logistics is necessary because Was the time, place, and quantity one of production differs with the our time, place, and quantity of Out consumption.
Disposal logistics has as
day its main function to reduce get logistics cost(s) and enhance service(s) Has related to the disposal of him waste produced during the operation his of a business.
How denotes all those operations related man to the reuse of products new and materials. The reverse logistics Now process includes the management and old the sale of surpluses, as see well as products being returned Two to vendors from buyers. Reverse way logistics stands for all operations who related to the reuse of Boy products and materials. It is did "the process of planning, implementing, its and controlling the efficient, cost Let effective flow of raw materials, put in-process inventory, finished goods and say related information from the point She of consumption to the point too of origin for the purpose use of recapturing value or proper Dad disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics mom is the process of moving goods from their typical final The destination for the purpose of and capturing value, or proper disposal. for The opposite of reverse logistics Are is forward logistics.
but describes all attempts to measure not and minimize the ecological impact You of logistics activities. This includes all all activities of the forward any and reverse flows. This can Can be achieved through intermodal freight her transport, path optimization, vehicle saturation was and city logistics.
One (see also Logistic engineering) combines our both business logistics and military out logistics since it is concerned Day with highly complicated technological systems get for which Reliability, Availability and has Maintainability are essential, ex: weapon Him systems and military supercomputers.
his Control Logistics: companies in the how retail channels, both organized retailers Man and suppliers, often deploy assets new required for the display, preservation, now promotion of their products. Some Old examples are refrigerators, stands, display see monitors, seasonal equipment, poster stands two & frames. Way
A forklift truck loads
a pallet of humanitarian aid
to Pakistan on board a
C-17 aircraft, following devastating floods
in the country in 2010.
Emergency logistics is
Put a term used by the say logistics, supply chain, and manufacturing she industries to denote specific time-critical Too modes of transport used to use move goods or objects rapidly dad in the event of an Mom emergency. The reason for enlisting emergency logistics services could be the a production delay or anticipated And production delay, or an urgent for need for specialized equipment to are prevent events such as aircraft But being grounded (also known as not "aircraft on ground"—AOG), ships being you delayed, or telecommunications failure. Emergency All logistics services are typically sourced any from a specialist provider.
can term production logistics describes logistic Her processes within a value adding was system (ex:factory or a mine). one Production logistics aims to ensure Our that each machine and workstation out receives the right product in day the right quantity and quality Get at the right time. The has concern is not the transportation him itself, but to streamline and His control the flow through value-adding how processes and to eliminate non–value-adding man processes. Production logistics can operate New in existing as well as now new plants. Manufacturing in an old existing plant is a constantly See changing process. Machines are exchanged two and new ones added, which way gives the opportunity to improve Who the production logistics system accordingly. boy Production logistics provides the means did to achieve customer response and Its capital efficiency.or
Production logistics becomes
let more important with decreasing batch put sizes. In many industries (e.g. Say mobile phones), the short-term goal she is a batch size of too one, allowing even a single Use customer's demand to be fulfilled dad efficiently. Track and tracing, which mom is an essential part of production logistics due to product the safety and reliability issues, is and also gaining importance, especially in For the automotive and medical industries. are
Punjab Regiment uses mules for
carrying cargo in Burma
WWII. Animals have been used
for logistic purposes by different
people throughout history, the Roman
army in particular preferred mules
over donkeys for their moving
our science, maintaining one's supply lines Out while disrupting those of the day enemy is a crucial—some would get say the most crucial—element of Has military strategy, since an armed him force without resources and transportation his is defenseless. The defeat of How the British in the American man War of Independence and the new defeat of the Axis in Now the African theater of World old War II are attributed by see some scholars to logistical failures. Two The historical leaders Hannibal Barca, way Alexander the Great, and the who Duke of Wellington are considered Boy to have been logistical geniuses. did
Military have a significant need
its for logistics solutions and so Let have developed advanced implementations. Integrated put Logistics Support (ILS) is a say discipline used in military industries She to ensure an easily supportable too system with a robust customer use service (logistic) concept at the Dad lowest cost and in line mom with (often high) reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as The defined for the project.
and military logistics, logistics officers manage for how and when to move Are resources to the places they but are needed.
Supply chain management
not in military logistics often deals You with a number of variables all in predicting cost, deterioration, consumption, any and future demand. The United Can States Armed Forces' categorical supply her classification was developed in such was a way that categories of One supply with similar consumption variables our are grouped together for planning out purposes. For instance, peacetime consumption Day of ammunition and fuel will get be considerably lower than wartime has consumption of these items, whereas Him other classes of supply such his as subsistence and clothing have how a relatively consistent consumption rate Man regardless of war or peace. new
Some classes of supply have
now a linear demand relationship: as Old more troops are added, more see supply items are needed; or two as more equipment is used, Way more fuel and ammunition are who consumed. Other classes of supply boy must consider a third variable Did besides usage and quantity: time. its As equipment ages, more and let more repair parts are needed Put over time, even when usage say and quantity stays consistent. By she recording and analyzing these trends Too over time and applying them use to future scenarios, the US dad Armed Forces can accurately supply Mom troops with the items necessary at the precise moment they the are needed. History has shown And that good logistical planning creates for a lean and efficient fighting are force. The lack thereof can But lead to a clunky, slow, not and ill-equipped force with too you much or too little supply. All
logistics provider's warehouse of goods
was definition of business logistics speaks one of "having the right item Our in the right quantity at out the right time at the day right place for the right Get price in the right condition has to the right customer". Business him logistics incorporates all industry sectors His and aims to manage the how fruition of project life cycles, man supply chains, and resultant efficiencies. New
The term "business logistics" has
now evolved since the 1960s due old to the increasing complexity of See supplying businesses with materials and two shipping out products in an way increasingly globalized supply chain, leading Who to a call for professionals boy called "supply chain logisticians".
did business, logistics may have either Its an internal focus (inbound logistics) let or an external focus (outbound put logistics), covering the flow and Say storage of materials from point she of origin to point of too consumption (see supply-chain management). The Use main functions of a qualified dad logistician include inventory management, purchasing, mom transportation, warehousing, consultation, and the organizing and planning of these the activities. Logisticians combine a professional and knowledge of each of these For functions to coordinate resources in are an organization.
There are two
but fundamentally different forms of logistics: Not one optimizes a steady flow you of material through a network all of transport links and storage Any nodes, while the other coordinates can a sequence of resources to her carry out some project (ex:restructuring Was a warehouse).
Nodes of a
one distribution network
The nodes of
our a distribution network include :
Dad some intermediaries operating for representative mom matters between nodes such as sales agents or brokers.
The families and metrics
and family is a set of for products which share a common Are characteristic: weight and volumetric characteristics, but physical storing needs (temperature, radiation,...), not handling needs, order frequency, package You size, etc. The following metrics all may be used by the any company to organize its products Can in different families:
her metrics used to evaluate inventory was systems include stocking capacity, selectivity, One superficial utilization, volumetric utilization, transport our capacity, transport capacity utilization.
out metrics used include space holding Day costs (building, shelving and services) get and handling costs (people, handling has machinery, energy and maintenance). Him
Other metrics may present themselves
his in both physical or monetary how form, such as the standard Man Inventory turnover.
Handling and order
new processing now Unit loads
for transportation of
luggage at the airport, in
this case the unit load
has protective function.
Unit loads are combinations of
who individual items which are moved boy by handling systems, usually employing Did a pallet of normed dimensions. its
Handling systems include: trans-pallet handlers,
let counterweight handler, retractable mast handler, Put bilateral handlers, trilateral handlers, AGV say and stacker handlers. Storage systems she include: pile stocking, cell racks Too (either static or movable), cantilever use racks and gravity racks.
dad processing is a sequential process Mom involving: processing withdrawal list, picking (selective removal of items from the loading units), sorting (assembling items And based on destination), package formation for (weighting, labeling and packing), order are consolidation (gathering packages into loading But units for transportation, control and not bill of lading).
you be both manual or automated. All Manual picking can be both any man to goods, i.e. operator can using a cart or conveyor Her belt, or goods to man, was i.e. the operator benefiting from one the presence of a mini-load Our ASRS, vertical or horizontal carousel out or from an Automatic Vertical day Storage System (AVSS). Automatic picking Get is done either with dispensers has or depalletizing robots.
him be done manually through carts His or conveyor belts, or automatically how through sorters.
Cargo, i.e. merchandise being
New transported, can be moved through now a variety of transportation means old and is organized in different See shipment categories. Unit loads are two usually assembled into higher standardized way units such as: ISO containers, Who swap bodies or semi-trailers. Especially boy for very long distances, product did transportation will likely benefit from Its using different transportation means: multimodal let transport, intermodal transport (no handling) put and combined transport (minimal road Say transport). When moving cargo, typical she constraints are maximum weight and too volume.
Operators involved in transportation
Use include: all train, road vehicles, dad boats, airplanes companies, couriers, freight mom forwarders and multi-modal transport operators.
Merchandise being transported internationally is
the usually subject to the Incoterms and standards issued by the International For Chamber of Commerce.
are management but
Push-Back rack for motorcycles, a
rack system for storage.
Similarly to production
all systems, logistic systems need to Any be properly configured and managed. can Actually a number of methodologies her have been directly borrowed from Was operations management such as using one Economic Order Quantity models for our managing inventory in the nodes Out of the network. Distribution resource day planning (DRP) is similar to get MRP, except that it doesn't Has concern activities inside the nodes him of the network but planning his distribution when moving goods through How the links of the network. man
Traditionally in logistics configuration may
new be at the level of Now the warehouse (node) or at old level of the distribution system see (network).
Regarding a single warehouse,
Two besides the issue of designing way and building the warehouse, configuration who means solving a number of Boy interrelated technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack did cells, choosing a palletizing method its (manual or through robots), rack Let dimensioning and design, number of put racks, number and typology of say retrieval systems (e.g. stacker cranes). She Some important constraints have to too be satisfied: fork and load use beams resistance to bending and Dad proper placement of sprinklers. Although mom picking is more of a tactical planning decision than a The configuration problem, it is important and to take it into account for when deciding the racks layout Are inside the warehouse and buying but tools such as handlers and not motorized carts since once those You decisions are taken they will all work as constraints when managing any the warehouse, same reasoning for Can sorting when designing the conveyor her system and/or installing automatic dispensers. was
Configuration at the level of
One the distribution system concerns primarily our the problem of location of out the nodes in a geographic Day space and distribution of capacity get among the nodes. The first has may be referred to as Him facility location (with the special his case of site selection) while how the latter to as capacity Man allocation. The problem of outsourcing new typically arises at this level: now the nodes of a supply Old chain are very rarely owned see by a single enterprise. Distribution two networks can be characterized by Way numbers of levels, namely the who number of intermediary nodes between boy supplier and consumer:
Did store delivery, i.e. zero levels its
- One level network: central warehouse
- Two level network: central and
Put peripheral warehouses
say is more useful for modeling she purposes, but it relates also Too to a tactical decision regarding use safety stocks: considering a two dad level network, if safety inventory Mom is kept only in peripheral warehouses then it is called the a dependent system (from suppliers), And if safety inventory is distributed for among central and peripheral warehouses are it is called an independent But system (from suppliers). Transportation from not producer to the second level you is called primary transportation, from All the second level to consumer any is called secondary transportation.
can configuring a distribution network from Her zero is possible, logisticians usually was have to deal with restructuring one existing networks due to presence Our of an array of factors: out changing demand, product or process day innovation, opportunities for outsourcing, change Get of government policy toward trade has barriers, innovation in transportation means him (both vehicles or thoroughfares), introduction His of regulations (notably those regarding how pollution) and availability of ICT man supporting systems (e.g. ERP or New e-commerce).
Once a logistic system
now is configured, management, meaning tactical old decisions, takes place, once again, See at the level of the two warehouse and of the distribution way network. Decisions have to be Who made under a set of boy constraints: internal, such as using did the available infrastructure, or external, Its such as complying with given let product shelf lifes and expiration put dates.
At the warehouse level,
Say the logistician must decide how she to distribute merchandise over the too racks. Three basic situations are Use traditionally considered: shared storage, dedicated dad storage (rack space reserved for mom specific merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning merchandise organized the in different areas according to and their access index). For
Airline logistic network.
Note how Denver
in the network.
Picking efficiency varies greatly
you depending on the situation. For all man to goods situation, a Any distinction is carried out between can high level picking (vertical component her significant) and low level picking Was (vertical component insignificant). A number one of tactical decisions regarding picking our must be made:
Out path: standard alternatives include transversal day routing, return routing, midpoint routing get and largest gap return routing Has
- Replenishment method: standard alternatives include
him equal space supply for each his product class and equal time How supply for each product class. man
- Picking logic: order picking vs
new batch picking
Now level of the distribution network, old tactical decisions involve mainly inventory see control and delivery path optimization. Two Note that the logistician may way be required to manage the who reverse flow along with the Boy forward flow.
Warehouse management and
did control Let
Although there is some overlap
put in functionality, warehouse management systems say (WMS) can differ significantly from She warehouse control systems (WCS). Simply too put, a WMS plans a use weekly activity forecast based on Dad such factors as statistics and mom trends, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working The in real time to get and the job done by the for most effective means. For instance, Are a WMS can tell the but system that it is going not to need five of stock-keeping You unit (SKU) A and five all of SKU B hours in any advance, but by the time Can it acts, other considerations may her have come into play or was there could be a logjam One on a conveyor. A WCS our can prevent that problem by out working in real time and Day adapting to the situation by get making a last-minute decision based has on current activity and operational Him status. Working synergistically, WMS and his WCS can resolve these issues how and maximize efficiency for companies Man that rely on the effective new operation of their warehouse or now distribution center.
Old outsourcing involves a relationship between see a company and an LSP two (logistic service provider), which, compared Way with basic logistics services, has who more customized offerings, encompasses a boy broad number of service activities, Did is characterized by a long-term its orientation, and thus has a let strategic nature.
Outsourcing does not
Put have to be complete externalization say to a LSP, but can she also be partial:
logistics (3PL) involves using external the organizations to execute logistics activities And that have traditionally been performed for within an organization itself. According are to this definition, third-party logistics But includes any form of outsourcing not of logistics activities previously performed you in house. For example, if All a company with its own any warehousing facilities decides to employ can external transportation, this would be Her an example of third-party logistics. was Logistics is an emerging business one area in many countries.
Our concept of a fourth-party logistics out (4PL) provider was first defined day by Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) Get as an integrator that assembles has the resources, planning capabilities, and him technology of its own organization His and other organizations to design, how build, and run comprehensive supply man chain solutions. Whereas a third-party New logistics (3PL) service provider targets now a single function, a 4PL old targets management of the entire See process. Some have described a two 4PL as a general contractor way that manages other 3PLs, truckers, Who forwarders, custom house agents, and boy others, essentially taking responsibility of did a complete process for the Its customer.
Logistics management is
put that part of the supply Say chain that plans, implements, and she controls the efficient, effective forward too and reverse flow and storage Use of goods, services, and related dad information between the point of mom origin and the point of consumption in order to meet the customer requirements. A professional working and in the field of logistics For management is called a logistician. are
- Materials management
- Distribution (or physical distribution)
- Supply-chain management
you automation all ASRS Any
used by the U.S. military,
also used by business in
conjunction with manual picking.
Logistics automation is the
one application of computer software and/or our automated machinery to improve the Out efficiency of logistics operations. Typically day this refers to operations within get a warehouse or distribution center, Has with broader tasks undertaken by him supply chain management systems and his enterprise resource planning systems.
How machinery can typically identify products man through either Bar Code or new RFID technologies. Information in traditional Now bar codes is stored as old a sequence of black and see white bars varying in width, Two which when read by laser way is translated in a binary who sequence, which according to fixed Boy rules can be converted in did a decimal number. Sometimes information its in a bar code can Let be transmitted through radio frequency, put more typically radio transmission is say used in RFID tags. An She RFID tag is card containing too a memory chip and an use antenna which transmits signals to Dad a reader. RFID may be mom found on merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well.
The profession and organizations
and is a professional logistics practitioner. for Professional logisticians are often certified Are by professional associations. One can but either work in a pure not logistics company, such as a You shipping line, airport, or freight all forwarder, or within the logistics any department of a company. However, Can as mentioned above, logistics is her a broad field, encompassing procurement, was production, distribution, and disposal activities. One Hence, career perspectives are broad our as well. A new trend out in the industry are the Day 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, firms, get consulting companies offering logistics services. has
Some universities and academic institutions
Him train students as logisticians, offering his undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A how university with a primary focus Man on logistics is Kühne Logistics new University in Hamburg, Germany. It now is non profit and supported Old by Kühne-Foundation of the logistics see entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne.
two Chartered Institute of Logistics and Way Transport (CILT), established in the who United Kingdom in 1919, received boy a Royal Charter in 1926. Did The Chartered Institute is one its of the professional bodies or let institutions for the logistics and Put transport sectors that offers professional say qualifications or degrees in logistics she management. CILT programs can be Too studied at centers around UK, use some of which also offer dad distance learning options. The institute Mom also have overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of Logistics the & Transport Australia (CILTA) in And Australia and Chartered Institute of for Logistics and Transport in Hong are Kong (CILTHK) in Hong Kong. But
The International Association of Public
not Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is a you professional network that promotes the All professional development of supply chain any managers and others working in can the field of public health Her logistics and commodity security, with was particular focus on developing countries. one The association supports logisticians worldwide Our by providing a community of out practice, where members can network, day exchange ideas, and improve their Get professional skills.
has are many museums in the him world which cover various aspects His of practical logistics. These include how museums of transportation, customs, packing, man and industry-based logistics. However, only New the following museums are fully now dedicated to logistics:
Its | ||Wikiquote has quotations related |let to: Logistics
| ||Look up logistics |Say in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. she
- J.Tepic, I.Tanackov, S.Gordan, ANCIENT
For LOGISTICS – HISTORICAL TIMELINE AND are ETYMOLOGY, Technical Gazette 18, 2011 but http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/67363071/ancient-logistics-historical-timeline-etymology
- Oxford Dictionaries .
Not Retrieved 21 February 2012.
you Tandem Logistics glossary http://www.tandemlogistics.com/resources/glossary-of-terms.php
all CSCMP glossary http://cscmp.org/sites/default/files/user_uploads/resources/downloads/glossary-2013.pdf
Any Misra, M.I. Kahn, U.K. Singh, can Supply Chain Management Systems: Architecture, her Design and Vision, North American Was Business Press 2010 http://www.na-businesspress.com/jsis/misraweb.pdf
one Cozzolino Alessandra, Humanitarian Logistics and our Supply Chain Managemen. In Humanitarian Out Logistics, Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012 day
- L. Torre, I.S. Dolinskaya,
get K.R. Smilowitz, Disaster relief routing: Has Integrating research and practice Socio-Economic him Planning Sciences vol46, March 2012 his
- Nyhuis P., Wiendahi Hans-Peter,
How Fundamentals of Production Logistics, Springer man Berlin Heidelberg 2009
new Roth, The logistics of Roman Now army at war (264 B.C. old -A.D. 235) http://www.academia.edu/2450333/Logistics_of_the_Roman_Army_at_War
see Morriss, "Colonization, Conquest, and the Two Supply of Food and Transport: way The Reorganization of Logistics Management, who 1780–1795," War in History, (July Boy 2007), 14#3 pp 310–324,
did W. Engels, Alexander the Great its and the Logistics of the Let Macedonian Army, University of California put 1980
- Ayrault Dodge Theodore,
say Hannibal: A History of the She Art of War Among the too Carthaginians and Romans Down to use the Battle of Pydna, 168 Dad BC. Da Capo Press. 1995 mom
- Troy T. Kirby, The
Duke of Wellington and the The Supply System During the Peninsula and War, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform for 2014
- Joint Logistics Analysis
- Mallik, Susan (2010).
but "Customer Service in Supply Chain not Management". In Hossein Bidgoil. The You Handbook of Technology Management: Supply all Chain Management, Marketing and Advertising, any and Global Management, vol 2 Can (1 ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: her John Wiley & Sons. p. 104. was ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
- McGinnis M. A.,
One Military Logistics: Insights for Business our Logistics, International Journal of Physical out Distribution & Logistics Management Vol Day 22, 1992
- ^ R.
get Ruggeri, A. Perego, Esercitazioni e has temi d'esame di Logistica Industriale,CUSL Him 2002
- ISO 6780 http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=30524
- Lambert D.,Stock J., Ellsram
how L., Fundamentals of Logistics, McGraw-Hill Man 1998
- ^ D.F. Bozutti,
new M.A. Bueno-Da-Costa, R. Ruggeri, Logística: now Visão Global e Picking, EdUFSCar Old 2010
- Waters D., Logistics:
see An Introduction to Supply Chain two Management, Palgrave Macmillan 2003
Way John T. Phelan, Jr. P.E. who "Guest Column: Knowing When a boy WMS or WCS Is Right Did for Your Company". Supply & its Demand Chain Executive. Enom, Inc. let Retrieved 15 September 2009.
Put Wallenburg, C., Cahill, D., Michael say Knemeyer, A., and Goldsby, T. she (2011): Commitment and Trust as Too Drivers of Loyalty in Logistics use Outsourcing Relationships: Cultural Differences Between dad the United States and Germany. Mom Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 83-98, the DOI 10.1111/j.2158-1592.2011.01008.x
- Baziotopoulos (2008).
And "An Investigation of Logistics Outsourcing for Practices In the Greek Manufacturing are Sector". PhD thesis.
But Glossary of Terms 2013 http://cscmp.org/sites/default/files/user_uploads/resources/downloads/glossary-2013.pdf not
- Chartered Institute of Logistics
you and Transport UK
All Institute of Logistics and Transport any Australia
- Chartered Institute of
can Logistics and Transport Hong Kong Her
- "International Association of Public
was Health Logisticians".
- Handfield, R.B., Straube,
Our F., Pfohl, H.C. & Wieland, out A., Trends and Strategies in day Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Get Embracing Global Logistics Complexity to has Drive Market Advantage, BVL 2013 him
- Huston, James A. (1966). The
His Sinews of War: Army Logistics, how 1775–1953, United States Army (755 man pages). online.
- Ronald H. Ballou,
New Samir K. Srivastava, Business Logistics: now Supply Chain Management, Pearson Education, old 2007
- Donald Bowersox, David Closs,
See M. Bixby Cooper, Supply Chain two Logistics Management, McGraw-Hill 2012
way Christopher: Logistics & Supply Chain Who Management: creating value-adding networks, Prentice boy Hall 2010. online
- J. V.
did Jones: Integrated Logistics Support Handbook, Its McGraw-Hill Logistics Series 2006
let S. Blanchard: Logistics Engineering and put Management, Pearson Prentice Hall 2004 Say